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The South Australian Naturalist 

The Journal ol the 1 3*«ti«m of th» Jtoyftl 

Society of South Australia and of the trail an 

J\oi Society. 



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Adelaide 
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VOL. XI 






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South Australian Naturalist. 



VOL. XL 



NOVEMBER, 1929, 



No. 1. 



NOTES ON THE BOTANY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

PART I. 

By J. ByRTcw Cleland, M.D. 

The expedition, organised by the Board of Anthropological 
Research of the University of Adelaide, to Alice Springs and 
Hcrmannsburg during August, 1929, coincided unfortunately with 
a period of long drought which had lasted for five years. The 
consequence was that, except here and there where a few points 
of rain had fallen, the country was remarkably dry and mostly 
waterless and only those plants had survived which were peculiarly 
fitted for eremian (desert) conditions. The notes here submitted 
attempt to give an indication of the plants to be found under such 
conditions, which must form a striking contrast to the wealth of 
grass and herbage after a soaking rain. 

The members of the expedition, eight in number, left Adelaide 
on August 4th to study various aspects of the aboriginals, jour- 
neyed to Stuart (Alice Springs) by the first passenger train to 
open the new line from Oodnadatta, arrived there early in the 
afternoon of August 6th, left for Hcrmannsburg Mission Station 
via the Jay River (about 90 miles) next morning, and commenced 
to retrace their steps on August 20th, 1929. 

The country in the McDonnell Ranges and their neighbour- 
hood consists of bold and precipitous mountain masses, with lower 
outliers, mostly running east and west, the plains being flat or 
slightly undulating. The mountains average about 3,000 feet in 
height, but some of the taller peaks reach 5,000 feet. The plains 
themselves arc some 2,000 feet above sea-level. Cutting through 
the ranges and running more or less at right-angles to these, are 
a number of watercourses, dry except for pools in sheltered places, 
unless after heavy rains. The gaps through which these cut their 
way are sometimes only ten yards or so wide, sometimes a chain 
or more, and the immediate sides, rising perhaps for 500 feet 
before opening out in a V fashion, are often unscalable from their 
precipitous nature and projecting rock masses. The length of the 
gaps through the ridges may be not more than 200 yards. On 



s.A. NAT., vol. XI. 
Notes on the Botany of S.J. (I.) November, 1929. 



iuch places, partially protected from evaporation by the shade, 

pools of water twelve or more feet deep may remain for years, 

occupying the deep holes scoured out by the torrential rush of 

waters that at rare intervals sweep through from the mountainous 

surroundings. Passage through such narrow gaps may be barred 

by these refreshing waterholes, as for example at Emily Gap, ^ ' 

Simpson's Gap and Glen Helen. 

The MacDonnells themselves consist of a scries of more or 
less separate ranges running east and west, separated by valleys 
which are very narrow or a icw miles wade and to which the 
various gaps are exits, giving escape also to the watercourses. To 
the south of the MacDonnell Ranges lie the lower James Ranges 
separated by the Missionaries Plains, some 10 to 15 miles w r ide. 
The KriehaurT Range is that part of the James Ranges immedi- 
ately west of the Finke Gorge where that broad and usually dry 
sandy watercourse cuts its way through at the foot of Hermann's 
Berg. Close by is the Hermannsburg Mission Station, beside the 
river, some 85 miles south of west of Alice Springs. 

From the botanical point of view, the district may be divided 
broadly into the following divisions: — (1) The plains and broad 
valleys, (2) the foothills, mountains and gorges, and (3) the 
watercourses and their pools. 

(1) THE PLAINS AND VALLEYS. These in most parts 
consist of a sandy loam, though in places more clayey so that 
they here readily become waterlogged and boggy and form small 
clay-pans, in places covered with loose stones when in proximity 
to weathered hills thus forming a kind of gibber, in places show- 
ing sand ridges and in still other others when near watercourses 
forming part of flood-plains. 

Most of the direct road to Hermannsburg from Alice Springs 
runs over the Missionaries Plains. In drought time, the chief, 
almost the entire, vegetation, vegetation is shrubby, and the 
predominant shrubs are acacias. Of these, the mulga (Acacia 
aneura) is in places dominant, and in other parts another Acacia, 
a spreading shrub up to about 10 feet high with rather broad but 
short multistriate phyllodes and neither in flower or fruit at the 
time of our visit. The mulgas as now growing are rarely so close 
together as to prevent a motor car from being driven between 
them, and often they are widely spaced. Mr. Johansson, a local 
resident, tells me that he recognises three kinds, one a shrub only, 
the other two, one narrow-leafed, one a little broader, growing 
into small, rather shapely trees with upright phyllodes. In passing 
across the plains, the young mulgas are clothed with branches 



J 




[Photo— J. H. CielancL VI. 1>. 
(1) Emily Ciap, Macdonnell Ranges. 




[Photo— J. B. Clelaod, M.l). 
(2) Mulga trees (Acacia aneura) and "Desert Spinifex" 
(Triodia irritans). 



S.A. NAT., VOL. XI. 

November 1929. By /. Burton CJrhnuL M.D. 



nearly to the ground passing out almost horizontally — perhaps 
these represent its shrubby form. When grown into a tree, the 
stem is free from, branches. The Ironwood (Ac. estrophiolaUl, 
plate 1) is a taller tree, with pendant narrow phyllodes giving it 
a willow like appearance, and with a dark furrowed stern. It is 
widely distributed but much less abundant than the mulga and 
the trees are a pleasing feature in the landscape. The prickly 
Dead Finish (Acacia tetragonophylla) with sharp-pointed 
phyllodes occurs as occasional bushes, some being m Rower during 
our visit and presenting quite a pretty appearance. A grey- 
leaved Lorantiviis was seen on the mulga and ironwood. This v. as 
probably the same as one (L. gibberulus) with terete grey-hoary 
leaves which was found in flower on another Acacia (or perhaps 
•on Cassia eremophita which was collected at the same lime). 
L. gibberulus usually infests species o. Grevillea (as was seen at 
'Glen Helen) or Hakea, Three species of Hakea occur ■ »n the 
plains or valleys, two of which, both corkwoods, are small trees. 
These latter are met with usually in little colonies ami both; may 
be seen, round Stuart, and on the track to Emily Gap. They, often 
grow on the higher ground near watercourses. Hakea intermedia 
has terete leaves which fork several times in a rather zig-zag way 
?md have a total length oi about 3V to \\ inches; the flowers are 
greenish, in dense racemes, the fruits in thick clusters and readily 
opening in the tree: it grew in the Missionaries Plains near the 
Hugh and on the flood-plains of the Finke to the south of Glen 
Helen as well as near, or actually in, Stuart. In Hakea lorea the 
leaves are also terete but considerably longer (8 or more inches) 
and divide into only two or three bunches; the flowers and fruits 
resemble those of H. inter media; the corky bark may project as 
ridges more than an inch deep; it grew near Stuart and on the 
higher plain-land to the west of the Finke at Hermannsburg. The 
third Hakea is the Needle-bush (II. I. ucoptera), usually a rather 
fan-shaped shrub 6 or 8 feet high, readily recognisable by the 
presence of numerous unopened ovate-lanceolate basally swollen 
woody fruits. Tins species was widely but sparsely distributed on 
the plains between the mulga. The Beef-wood (Grevillea striata), 
a small tree, was similarly widely and sparsely dispersed; it grew 
amongst other places with //. lorea to the west of the Finke at 
Hermannsburg; the leaves are long (up to 10 inches), narrow 
(\ inch wide) and multistriate and the fruits arc nearly disc- 
shaped and thin like those of other Grevilleas. Here and there 
were a few Cassia bushes belonging to two species, the two leaflets 
being terete in one. species (C. erevwpkila) . the several leaflets 
broad in the other (probably C. Sturtii). In the sand ridges 
grew another Cassia (C. pleurocarpa) with distantly separated 






S.A. NAT., VOL. XI 

Shell Collectors' Committee. November, 1929 



broad leaflets. Amongst, other shrubs were occasional examples 
of Acacia ligulata, of an Encmopluhi, of an acacia-like shrub with 
a few prickles and small berries but not in flower, of a Dodonaea 
( D. attenuata) with narrow leaves, and Bullock-bush ( Heterode-n- 
dron. ole\\alium) . Porcupine grass (Triodia sp.) was occasional. 

When, as near Alice Springs, we came to patches where a 
little rain had fallen, the bare spaces under and between the 
perennial shrubs above-mentioned were clothed with annuals such 
as composites (Everlastings, etc.). Chenopodiaceae (salt bus hes r 
etc., especially where there had been more moisture as near 
runnels), Amarantaccae, Malvaceae and a few grasses (Aristlda r 
EragrostiSj etc.), 

(To be continued.) 

— : o : — 



SHELL COLLECTORS' COMMITTEE. 



This club met on twenty-two evenings during the year, with 
an average attendance of fourteen members. Interest in the aims 
and objects of the club lias been well maintained throughout,. 
resulting in members having now a good working knowledge of 
the various shell families under review. Twenty-seven distinct 
families of Bivalve AloIIusea were studied in the order now 
generally placed by modern Conchologists. A majority of the 
man_\- species coming under these families, collected by members 
from various points on our coast line, was exhibited. Without 
facilities for dredging in deep water members of the club have- 
had little chance of discovering new species in beach collecting 
*nA thus adding to the excellent tabulated list now in hands of 
members, but much work still remains in the way of uncovering 
tfie habits and life history ol many of our common species, which 
should prove of practical value. This aspect has been fully dealt 
with at every meeting. 

At the Annual Native Wild Flower Show the club exhibited 
a typical collection of South Australian shells, which was favour- 
ably commented on by visitors. 

W. J. KiivfBER, Chairman. 

F. Trigg. Hon. Sec. 



S.A. NAT., VOL. XI. 

November, 1929. Australian Botanical A otrunclaturs 



AUSTRALIAN BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE. 

The Committee appointed in 1924 by the Australasian. 
Association for the Advancement of Science to deal with this- 
subject came to a decision regarding certain generic names in 
*. 4 1925 and again in 1929. The Committee recommended that, in 

order to ensure stability of nomenclature, several names should 
be placed on the list of nomina conservanda and the synonyms 
on the list of nomina rejicienda. These will form an addition to 
the list of such names adopted at the Vienna Congress of 1905, 
and they will be presented to the International Botanical Con- 
gress to be held at Cambridge (England) in August, 1930. The 
full list of Australian names is as follows: — ■ 

NOMINA CONSERVANDA. NOMINA REJICIENDA. 

ORCHIDACEAE. 

Corysantkes, R. Br. (1810). Corybas, Salisb. (1807). 

Goadytra, R. Br. (1813). Epipactis, Boehm. (1760). 

Peramiuvi, Salisb, ( 1812). 

POLYGON ACE AE. 

Muehlenbeckia, Meisn. C al acinum , Rafm. ( 1836). 

(1840). Karkinetron, Rafin. (1836). 

SarcQ£onum 3 C Don (1839)* 
*r LEGUMINOSAE. 

Dichroslachys, Wight et CaiUiea, Guillem et Perr. 

Arn. (1834). ~ (1833). 

CELASTRACEAE. 
Denhamia, Meisn. (1837). Leucocarpum 3 A. Rich. (1834).. 

UMBELLIFERAE. 

Oreomyrrhis, Endl. (1839). Caldas'ia, Lag. (1821). 

EPACRIDACEAE. 
Leucopogon, R. Br. (1810). Perojoa, Cav. (1797). 
STYLIDIACEAE. 

Stylidium, Swartz. (1805). Stylidium, Lour. (1790). 

COMPOSITAE. 

Angianthus, Wendl. (1809). Siloxerus, Labill. (1806). 
Olearia, Moench. (1802). Sha-ivla, Forst. et f. (1776). 

Cassinia, R. Br. (1817). Casshna, R. Br. (1813). 

The Committee also considered certain other generic names 
which have already the right of priority in their favour, but which 
have been replaced by later names in several important works 
dealing with the Australian flora, and it was decided to oppose 
any proposal which might be made at the Congress to displace- 
the earlier names. These generic names are: — 



S-A. SAT., V01 ■ XT. 

By J. B. Black. November, 1929. 



Themeda, Forsk. (1775) as against Jnthisthia, L. f. (1779). 
— Gramineae. 

Stenophyllus } Rafin. (1825) as against. Bidbostylis (Kunth) 
C B. Clarke (1893).— Cyperaceae. 

Ste-mo/ia, Lour. (1790) as against Roxburghia, Banks 1795). 

Lomandra, Labill. (1804) as against Xerotes, R. Br. 1810). 

Corymborchisj Thou. ( 1809) as against Cory mbis . Thou. 
(1822). ' 

Lindevnia, All. (1762-65) as agafhst Bandellia, L. (1767).- — 
Scrophulariaeeae. 

The personnel of the Australian Committee was as 
follows :— 

J. W. Audas, F.L.S., Curator, Victorian National Herbarium. 

J. M. Black, Hon. Lecturer in Botany, Adelaide University, 
and Hon. Secretary of the Committee. 

R. A. Black, Botanist of Agricultural Dept., Tasmania 
(1925). 

W, M. Came, Government Botanist, Western. Australia 
(1925). 

E. Cheel, Curator, New South Wales National Herbarium. 

G. P. Darnell-Smith, D.Sc, Director, Botanic Gardens, ■ 

Sydney (1929). ^ 

A. J. Ewart, D.Sc, F.R.S.. F.L.S.. Professor of Botany. 
University of Melbourne. 

C. A. Gardner, Government Botanist, Western Australia 
(1929). 

E. J. Goddard, B.A., D.Sc., Professor of Biology, University 
of Brisbane. 

T. Harvey Johnston, M.A., D.Sc. Hon. Professor of &i n :..nv. 
University of 'Adelaide (1929). 

W. Laidlaw, Government Botanist, Victoria (1925). 

A. A. Lawson, D.Sc, Professor of Botany. University of 
Sydney (1925). 

J. H. Maiden, I.S.O., F.R.S., F.L.S., late Government 
Botanist of New South Wales (1925). 

T. G. B. Osborn, D.Sc, Professor of Botany, University of 
Sydney (1929). 

F. J. Rae, B.A., B.Sc, Government Botanist. Victoria. 
L. Rodway, C.M.G,, Government Botanist, Tasmania. 
R. S. Rogers, M.A., M.D., Adelaide (1929). 
C. T. White, F.L.S., Government Botanist, Queensland. 
J. G. Wood, M.Sc, Lecturer in Botany, University of 

Adelaide (1929). 






s.a. k - . vol. xi. 
November, 1929. 



innual Report, F.N.S, 



*•»/ 



V - 






FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FIELD 
NATURALISTS' SECTION OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY. 

Year Ending 31st August, 1929. 



The work of the Section has been well maintained for the 
last twelve months, and the following report is presented for the 
information of members. 

MEMBERSHIP. Last year's membership was 188, and of 
tliis total 118 were financial. The figures this year are 150 mem- 
bers. o\ which number 110 are financial. While 17 new members 
were admitted, the losses were two by resignation and two by 
clear'".. 

EXCURSIONS. Outings in the field have been arranged to 
man) points, and the leaders are to be thanked for the time 
devoted to the enlightenment of the members. Trips have been 
made to coast, plains^ foothills, river, forest, and the Gulf, whilst 
visits to the Museum, Botanic and private gardens provided much 
instruction. A more intense concentration of the study of wild 
life in the field, the source, after all, of our knowledge ol Natural 
History, is desired, It is there that we may solve the secrets of 
nature, which she guards very jealously from the merely curious, 
but reveals unreservedly in all their infinite variety and beauty 
to the patient and zealous investigator. The Committee w r ould 
like to see better attendances at the excursions and more mem- 
bers taking up a definite line ol study. 

LECTURES. Our standard ol" lectures has been well main- 
tained, and we have been favoured with excellent lantern lectures 
by the following: — 

!)•'. A. E. V. Richardson, on "Nature Notes and Scenes in 
Japan and Java." 

N. B. Tindale, on ''Aborigines of tjie West Coast." 
R. W. Segnit, B.Sc, on "The Oxford University Expedi- 
tion to Spitsbergen," 

. A. M. Trengove, on "Some Critical Aspects of Aus- 
Inland." 

H. Basedow, A LP., on "Some Critical Aspects of Aus- 
tralian Anthropology." 
H. M. Hale, on "Mosquitoes," etc. 
Others who assisted with papers or lecturettes were: — 

'$h_\ \V. Champion Hackctt, on "The Protection of Our Fauna 

and Flora." 
Prof. J. B. Cleland, M.D., a paper on "The Original Flora 
of the Adelaide Plains," and lecturettes on "Our 
Herbarium*' and "Botanical Notes on a Trip North of 
Port Augusta, and Bird Observing." 



vj 

M 



Dr. 

Mr 



S.\. NAT.. Vol.. XI- 

innuai Rsport, f.X.S. November. 1929. 



Mr. E. II. Isingj on ''Herbarium Work," on "Native Plants 
at Mile End, near Adelaide," on "Botanical Notes on 
Alligator Creek and Mount Remarkable/* 

Mr. B. B. Beck, on "A Trip to Alligator Creek/' 

Mr. W. Ham, on "Geological Specimens from Kingscote, K,I/ ? 

Mr. J. F. Bailey gave a lecturctte on "Some Australian 
Flowers/ 5 

Messrs. W. J. Kimbcr, F. Trigg, Broadbent, H. Williams, 
Misses V. Taylor, Moore, J. Murray, and R. E. Kentish 
showed specimens in connection with the Shell Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. F. B. Collins, on "Insect Pests of the Dried Fruit 
Industry.'' 

EXHIBITS. Many members contributed to this important 
part of our programme, and the members are thanked for their 
"interest in bringing objects of Natural History. Every exhibit 
.brought to the meetings has created a certain amount of interest; 
members are urged to foster this interest by bringing specimens 
and giving observations concerning them. 

THE^ -SOUTH AUSTRALIAN NATURALIST/ 1 Our 
Journal has been published regularly each quarter under the 
editorship of Mr. W. Ham. The part to be issued this month 
(No. 4) will complete Volume X. 

The subject of Botany has been dealt with by Prof. J. B. 
Cleland and Mr. E. H. Ising, Aboriginal Rock Carvings by Mr. 
H. M. Hale, Fresh Water Fishes by Mr. C. Blewett, and Shell 
Studies by Air. F. Trigg. The Committee hope to enlarge and 
further illustrate the Journal, and the Editor will be pleased to 
receive contributions of original Natural History observations^ 
with illustrations. We have received £5/15/- from the Royal 
Society for this purpose, 

WILD FLOWER SHOW. 1928 Annual Show was held on 
October 12th and 13th in the Adelaide Town Hall, which was 
made available by the kindness of the Lord Mayor. The exhi- 
bition was up to the usual standard, and flowers were contributed 
by schools, mutual clubs, friends and members. Many branches 
of Natural History were represented, including shells, microscope 
subjects, botany (pressed specimens and native timbers), aquatic 
life (prepared by the S.A. Aquarium Society and the Education 
Department through Mr. Machell), entomology — an exhibit of 
butterflies, beetles, etc., from the Museum — wild flower paintings, 
etc. 

The show proved successful, and £33/10/- profit was made. 



f 



B.A. NAI'., VOL. XI. 

November. 1929. Annual Report, F..V.S, 



HERBARIUM. The work in the Herbarium has been con- 
tinued under the able direction of Professor J. B, Cleland and 
Mr. J. G, Wood, M.Se. Increased numbers of specimens have 
been drafted into their orders and hied into cardboard boxes. The 
painting of specimens with a poisonous mixture and mounting of 
specimens has proceeded a further stage. Lists of plants in the 
Morialta. Waterfall Gully and Bel air National Park Reserves 
have been prepared and are read}' for publishing when funds 
permit. There is a large amount of work to be done and more 
helpers are needed. The work is engaged in on certain Mondays 
from 5 to 6 p.m. 

OBITUARY. By the death of Mr. Walter Gill, F.L.S., 
F.R.H.S.. we have lost one of our oldest and best members. Mr. 
(nil was best known for his many lectures on lorestry and forest 
trees and lor his particularly line lantern slides all made from 
views taken by himself in various parts o! the State. Mr. Gill's 
store 0*1 forestry information was almost unlimited, and he had 
the valuable asset of being able to impart his knowledge to others 
in a fluent, pleasing and instructive way. Mr. Gill will always 
be known, at least in the forestry world, for his planting of pines 
which he was able to cut into merchantable timber in his own 
life time. His keenness and zeal in all forestry matters were 
well known. 

Mr. T. P. Bellehambers, that noted and wonderful naturalist, 
an honorary member, passed away in July, and was buried in the 
Sanctuary at Humbug Scrub, which lie. almost unaided, had 
created in the heart oi the hills near One Free Hill. This great 
nature lover will always be known for his unselfish and untiring 
efforts to preserve our native wild life, especially the fast dis- 
appearing fauna of our State. Perhaps his best work, and it is 
really famous, was in connection with the Mallee Fowl. A pair 
of these birds he had kept in captivity for more than fourteen 
years and as they bred freely, he was able to observe their habits 
and learn their life history in a way that was incomparable. His 
■observations are recorded in ''Nature, our Mother," and also by 
n fine series of lantern slides taken by himself of his birds. 

Mr. Bellehambers also secured specimens of kangaroos, 
wallabies, emus, Mallee fowl, ducks, etc., and provided them with 
a secure and permanent home in natural surroundings. Among 
the very numerous visitors to the Sanctuary were Sir Arthur 
Conan Doyle. Commonwealh Governors-General, State 
Governors, and many prominent South Australians. It is a 
pleasure to learn that Mr. Bellehambers 5 sons will carry on the 
good work. 

Herbert M. Ha i.e. Chairman. 

Ernest H. I sing, Hon. Sec. 



S.A. NAT., VOI . xr 

10 W$d Flower S W. November, 1929 . 

THE TENTH ANNUAL WILD FLOWER AND 
NATURAL HISTORY EXHIBITION. 

October 10 and 11, 1929. 

The tenth annua! fixture of the Section was held in the 
Adelaide Town Hall on Thursday and Friday, 10th and 1 1th 
October, and proved very successful from all points of view. A 
good rain fell in the Mount Lofty Range several weeks before the 
Show, and the flowers from the hills were exceedingly good as a 
result of it. School teachers and scholars from many country 
centres contributed the bulk oi flowers from tins State, while 
Field Naturalists' Clubs and friends supplied the interstate flowers 

These tatter were .sent by the following: — 

West Australia — Field .Naturalists' Club, Mowers i rorn neat 
Perth, per Lt.-Col. B. T. Goadby, Hon. See.; Mr. R. B. Ackland,. 
Wongon Hills: Mr, R. T. Suihbs, a large and extensive collection 
from Brunswick Junction. 

Victoria- — Victorian Field Naturalists' Club, per Mr. J . \\ . 
Audas. 

New South Wales— Mr. D. Chalker a Hilltop, Waratahs and 
Boronia. 

Queensland — Queensland Field Naturalists 7 Club, per (1. N. 
Slaughter, Mowers I rom Thulimbah. 

Mr. G- F. Berthoud, Hamel, a fine collection of W.A. ever- 
lastings. 

The following commit! ees were formed with the following 
conveners : — 

Scientific Classification; A large number of species were 
labelled with their botanical names and were very instructive to 
students and others, Messrs. |. M. Black and j. F, Bailey (Dr. 
R. S. Rogers named the orchids); School Flowers. Mr. W. H. 
Selway and Miss J. M. Murray; Massed Effects; Airs. B. B. 
Beck arranged a very effective pyramid in the centre of the hall: 
Cultivated Flowers were exhibited by Mr. W. Burdett, who 
showed a magnificent collection grown by him at. 'Basket Range; 
Mr. Edwin Ashby, an excellent variety from several States grown 
at Blackwood; Mr. T. C. Wollaston, many fine blooms cultivated 
be him at Bridgewater, and Miss Parkhouse a number of species 
grown at YVoodville. A large collection of insects, including 
moths, butterflies, beetles, wasps, etc., was kindly lent by the 
Board of Governors ol the Public Library, also a line collection 
of shells. The Shell Collectors' Committee also exhibited a large 
number of shells, and gave iecturettes during the course of the 
Show; Mr. W. J. Kimber, convenor. Pond Life, consisting of 
a number of jars containing fish and other aquatic life and plants; 
convenor, Mr. |. E. L. Machell. 






S.A. MAT., VOL. XL 

November, 1929. Wild Flower Show. It 



The Exhibition opened kt noon on Thursday, 10th October, 
and the official opening by the Lady Mayoress (Mrs. J. L, 
B-onyfbon) look place at 8 p.m. that evening. Lecturcttes illus- 
trated by lantern slides were given by the following: — Mr. H. M. 
Hale, "Trip to Macdo.nnell Ranges' 1 ; Mr. J. F. Bailey, "Austra- 
lian Trees"; Mr. W. J. Kimber, "Trip to Barrier Reef- ; and Mr. 
A. J. Morison, "Parks and Gardens, etc." 

Mr. L. H. Howie was convenor of the painting competition 
and, with Miss Lois Laughton, acted as judges. In the Public 
Schools section for watercolours there were good entries, and Miss 
J. M. Murray donated the second prize of 5/-; for watercolour 
design in the same section Miss M. Roeger donated the second 
prize oi 5/~. For the amateur class (watercolour paintings only) 
there were good entries, and the prizes were awarded as follows: 
— First, Miss J. Williams. Geraldton waxflowcr; second, Miss V. 
Buttrose, Chorizema. Prizes for painting for Public Schools: 
First: Miss M. Brown, Butterflies; second. Miss I. Salmon, 
Boronia. Lor designs: First prize. Miss A. Phillips, Sturt Peas; 
second. Miss J. Jolly, Waratahs. Sales stall: Convenors, Mes- 
dames C. Pearce and li. M. Hale. The Department of Agricul- 
ture exhibited a collection of grasses consisting of many species, 
including native as well as introduced; Mr. E. Pritchard, convenor. 
Prof. J. B. Gel and exhibited the following:— Living bacteria 
drawn to represent various items; named ephemeral native plants; 
named fungi; named collection oi South Australian seaweeds and 
seeds and pods of various Eucalypts, hlakeas, etc. Mr. A. J. 
Wiley made a fine exhibit of turnery in native timbers, the 
northern wattles, oaks and gums were shown to best advantage 
with a duco polish. One of Mr. Wiley's latest woods to exploit 
is the grey mangrove (Avicennia officinalis) , which is a pale grey 
timber with fine dark lines. Microscopes and a micro projector 
\vcv : * exhibited by Mr. English, and loaned by Messrs. Laubman 
and Punk; Mr. W. H. Briggs also loaned a microscope and slides. 

The Woods and Forest Department, through the kindness ot 
the Conservator (Mr. E. Julius), exhibited furniture made of 
native and S.A. grown Pinus r achat a (P. insignis) , also timber 
samples and photos of forest scenes. A collection of specimens 
of wattles was also sent from Mr. Crawford forest reserve. Mr. 
A. j . Morison had on view- a collection of photos of a trip to 
Queensland. Mr. R. Correll showed a fine collection of flowers 
from Port Lincoln and some minerals from the same place. A 
large collection oi minerals was kindly lent by the Alines De- 
partment through Mr. R. L, Jack. Orchids grown in pots were 
shown by Master C. and .Miss D. Kay, Rosslyn Park, Magill. 

all the States were shown 



Jy.A. If AT., VOL. XI. 

12 WM Flousr Show. November, 1929. 



by the Section. Mr. G. Beck exhibited a fine specimen of 
Eucalyptus tor quota and E. Luehviannii and a Melaleuca; he also 
lent his lantern and operated it for the lecturettes. Mrs. Parker 
showed a unique basket made of shells. Mr. W. Ham showed a 
series of pictures illustrating vandalism on the one hand and 
protection of our trees and flowers on the other. The school 
prizes were gained by the following: — First, Macclesfield; second, 
Myponga; third. Basket Range; fourth, Athelstone; fifth, Coon- 
al'pyn; sixth, Monarto South. Messrs. J. M. Black and J. F. 
Bailey judged the collections. Music was supplied on the organ 
on the opening evening by Mr. W. R. Knox, the organ being 
kindly lent by the Lord Mayor. 

We are greatly indebted to the following for special help: — 
Mr. J. F. Bailey, pot plants and glass jars; Rosella Manufactur- 
ing Co., for the loan oi bottles; Messrs. A. Simpson & Son, for 
flower containers ; \ acuum Oil Co., through Mr. C. Drummond, 
for loan of cases; Mr. Tillett, for ticket writing, through Dr. C. 
Fenner; Mr. 1). E. Chalker, for Waratahs and Boronia from 
Hilltop. N.S.W.; flowers from Mrs. Fowler and Mrs. B. Dodd, 
Myponga; Mr. Tilling, Mylor: Everlastings from Mr. G, F. 
Berthoud, Hamel. W.A.; Miss E. Ireland, lor typing circulars, 
and many members of the Section for the splendid assistance 
throughout the Show. 

The following schools contributed flowers : — Aldgate, .Ash- 
bourne. Angaston, Athelstone, Bird wood, Bridgewater, Basket 
Range, Burrungul, Clare, Corny Point, Coonalpyn, Echunga, 
Hincimarsh Tiers. Jupiter Creek, Keyneion, Laura, Lyndoch, 
Macclesfield. Myponga, Mt. Barker, Mt. Pleasant, Monarto 
South, Mylor, Sandalwood, and Upper Sturt. 

The estimated profit from the Show is £36. 

RESIGNATION OF THE HON. SECRETARY. 

Members of the Society will be deeply disappointed to learn 
that our indefatigable Secretary, Mr. E. II. Ising, who has worked 
so well for the Section for a period of over twelve years, has 
decided to resign the position of Secretary from December 31st. 
Members are asked to send in nominations for the position on or 
before December 10th. The General Committee will be called 
together to make the appointment, which must be made early in 
order that the programme for 1930 may be prepared. 






s.a. n vt.., vol. xi, 
November, 1929. 



Hairnet Shsst, F.N.S, 



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Committee 



.A- NAT., VOL- *■(■ 

November, 1929. 



FIELD NATURALISTS SECTION OF THE ROYAL 
SOCIETY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



EXCURSION ACCOUNT. 



LOSSES AS UNDER, 



928. 



£ s. d 



Sept. 29— Port Willunga 5 

Oct . 10 — Myponga — 

£3/8/6 profit transferred to Wild Flower 
Show Account, 

Nov. 10— Snow's, Aldgate 1 17 

Dec. IS — Dredging — Outer Harbour 1 S 6 

1929. 

Feb. 16- — Dredging — Outer Harbour 8 1 

Apr. 27 — Montacute 2 16 



August, 12th, 1929. 



£11 6 7 
F. TRIGG, 

Hon. Sec, F.N.S. 



: : 



MICROSCOPIC COMMITTEE. 

It Is desired to report to the Field Naturalists' Section of the 
Royal Society of S.A. that the Microscopic Committee has suc- 
cessfully completed the second year of its meeting. 

The membership, while not notably augmented, has held to 
its customary number and meetings have averaged eight to ten 
throughout the year. 

The year commenced with a dissertation on the technicalities 
of the microscope itself, and later the work of the Committee was 
largely confined to the demonstration of methods of mounting 
specimens with a view to enabling members to enter more freely 
into the practical aspects of microscopy. It is hoped that this 
policy will be further continued, and combined with future 
demonstrations as to the collection of raw materials suitable for 
mounting. 

Lectures were also given on subjects of interest such as 
'"Micro-photography," etc. 



3.A. NAT., VOL. XI. 

November, 1929. The Crustaceans ol S.J. IS 



THE CRUSTACEANS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA," Part II 

By Herbert M. Male, Curator, South Australian Museum. 
(Government "Printer, Adelaide, August 30. 1929). Price 5/-. 



i This part completes the British Science Guild Handbook 

dealing with the South Australian representatives of the Subclass 
Malacostraca; In the first part (issued in 1927) the larger 
Crustacea, crabs, prawns, crayfish, and their allies were described 
and illustrated, and 1 he section now under review deals with the 
smaller but. no less interesting forms- — the sea fleas, sand hoppers, 
whale-lice, wood lice opossum-shrimps, etc. As before, a typical 
member of each order is described in detail, so that the student 
need have no difficult}, in Following the descriptions and keys. 
The author records n i any species for South Australia, but remarks 
that a great number of unrecorded and undescribed forms awaits 
attention; he remarks "Portions of our coast, provide ideal condi- 
tions for the smaller Malacostraca. Many Amphipods and 
Isopods live amongst the Algae which occur in abundance where 
the foreshore is rock} , while sponges ami sea-squirts, which 

harbour some species, are plentiful the group offers a fertile 

field for investigation/' \s an instance ol the groups available 
for research we may mention the interesting opossum shrimps, so 
called because the female carries her eggs in a bruod-pouch below 
the thorax; until recently not a single species Was recorded from 
South Australia. Mr. Male, however, has collected 10 species in 
St. Vincent Gulf; most were secured, by the way, during the 
annual dredging excursions ol the Field Naturalists. These were 
described by Dr. Tattersall, a noted authority on this particular 
order and arc included in 'he handbook. Similarly, no species of 
the remarkable order Lai mace a were reo irded, but the author 
describes 8 bizarre forms. 

The work as now completed contains 364 illustrati< ms, the 
majority of which we're prepared by the author- a glossary of the 
terms vised arid a complete index is included, and it is hoped that 
the handbook' will form the basis ol much. Further n search in 
connection with our crustaceans. 

— : o : — 
FLINDERS CHASE. 

Professor Cleland is making an appeal for funds hi support 
of Flinders Chase, which is wholly supported by voluntary con- 
tributions aided by a Government subsidy. A small amount has 
been subscribed by some members, and it is thought that others 
may like to subscribe To such a worthy object. Members may 
leave their subscription with Mr. Heck, Cole's Book \rcade, 18 
Rundlc Street. 



> 



16 



Excursions, 1929. 



-A. NAT., VOL, Xl. 
NoVKNflJEK, 192V. 



EXCURSION TO KINGSTON PARK. 

August 24th, 1929. 

A small party explored Kingston Park, under the direction 
of Air. J. A. Hogan, in search of native coast flora. The park 
comprises about 20 acres, and the present building was erected 
by Master Mariner Lewis, from whom Marino derives its name. 
]t next came into the possession of the late Sir George S. Kingston, 
who planted vines and fruit trees, and enlarged the dwelling. He 
also planted the two conspicuous Norfolk Island pines, which 
once served as a striking landmark for mariners approaching the 
coast. The property was inherited by the late Right lion. C. C. 
Kingston, and on the death of his widow it was bequeathed to 
the Tourist Bureau. Additions and alterations to the residence 
have equipped it as a kiosk for refreshments. 



EXCURSION TO PARADISE, 

September 7th, 1929. 

On the invitation of Mr. J. H. Coulls and Mr. L. Wickes. 
members paid a visit to their orange orchards, between Paradise 
and Athelstone. Wattles were in full bloom, notably Acacia 
armata and A obliqua. The apricots displayed a wealth of flower, 
an earnest of a bountiful crop. Orange trees were bowed down 
with an abundance of fruit, and the visitors were hospitably in- 
vited to help themselves freely. Almost as far as the eye could 
reach the landscape was mantled with the dark green foliage and 
the luscious fruit. 

In each of the two orchards stood an ancient orange tree, 
both more than 70 years old, and claimed to be the oldest in the 
State. Mr. Coull's tree was estimated to be 35 ft. high and about 
100 ft. in spread. It often yielded 30 cases of oranges. In 1855 
the owner of the homestead picked up an orange pip In the kitchen 
of his dwelling and planted it, and this magnificent tree resulted. 
The tree belonging to Mr. Wickes was but slightly inferior in 
dimensions and yield. 

Mr. Wickes showed a rare kind of plant — a deciduous orange 
tree. It is immune from most diseases, and although the fruit is 
not of much value it provides an admirable stock for other 
varieties. Among other trees the Primus japonica showed a wealth 
of blossom. The yield of vegetables was extremely prolific. This 
was due largely to the system of overhead sprinkling. The water 
is lifted from the River Torrens by a force pump to an elevation 
about 200 ft. higher into a dam with a capacity of 200,000 gallons. 



< 



S.A. NAT., VOL. XI, 

Novemb er , 1929 . Excursions, 1929, 17 

The young tomatoes were looking particularly healthy. The 
treatment of these plants is based on ascertained scientific 
principles. They arc first sown in boxes in hotbeds, richly 
manured, and then transferred to small pots. Then the young 
tomatoes are hardened out in soil that has been sterilised by the 
Government steaming plant. This process destroys the numerous 
microbes and fungoid pests that of recent years threatened to 
wipe out tomato-growing. 

Mr. Wickes devotes his hard-won leisure to the cultivation 
of native flora. Callhtemon (bottle brush), Boronia, Hakea, 
Elaeocarpus } and man}- other species have taken kindly to 
their new habitat, and the Hakea especially shows some fine 
blooms. Among aliens the South African silver leaf ( ' Leucoden- 
drov) was conspicuous. A pleasant walk along the banks of the 
cemented channel conveying the river water to Hope Valley was 
greatly enjoyed. The banks of the channel are bordered with 
lofty pines. Through the gaps in these avenues glimpses were 
caught of the peaceful and prosperous village of Athelstone against 
the background of lofty cone-shaped hills, broken here and there 
by long, winding gullies through which sparkled the waters of 
numberless creeks. 

A contrast with modern, convenient dwellings was a Horded, 
by the old mill house, built about 1838, and another house, used 
as a storeroom, consisting of nine rooms, in one long line, and 
pigeonholes of windows. Here the visitors were shown how the 
oranges were graded, according to size. 

EXCURSION TO DASHWOOD'S GULLY. 
October 9th, 1929. 

A part)', at the invitation of the proprietor, visited the estate 
of Mr. J. A. Harper, at Dashwood's Gully. On the Coromandel 
\ alley Road a halt was made while members explored the scrub 
for flowers for the Wild Flower Show. The visitors were received 
by Mrs. A. Harper. After lunch the party scattered through the 
bush in quest of native flowers. Many native blooms were 
obtained. The Pultenaea was in full bloom and many of the rich 
brownish-yellow blossoms were gathered. Tctratheca, Hakea, 
Li-'ptospermum were also growing in profusion. The dainty 
C&esia, Kennedyu prostrata, Diciiopogon strictus were among 
other prizes of the search. The golden yellow blossoms of Hib- 
bcrt'ia sericea (the silky guinea flower) were a marked feature of 
the landscape. Plalylobhnn oblnsangulwm, known as native or 
wild Ivy, with yellowish blossoms mottled with brown, are a great 
favourite with nature lovers. Grcvillea lavandulacea (popular- 
ly Cat's claws), with its long pink pistils, was greatly admired. 



S.A. NA ... "■' L. XI. 

18 Excursions, 1929. November, 1929. 



Pimelea octopkylla and P. phyllicoides provided a contrast with 
their cream-coloured and snowy corollas. Olcaria, a purple daisy- 
like (lower, and white and golden Helichrysum represented the 
('ompositae. Two rare finds were 'Zieria, of a delicate iavender 
colour, and Correct rubra, a bell-shaped crimson flower often 
called from its shape and colour the native fuchsia. Conosper- 
viujn patens is a shrub very suitable for decorative purposes. A 
tiny little blue flower rejoices in the formidable name of Chae- 
n.escilla eorymbosa. Many grass trees Xanthorrhoea semlplana 
were seen, but had not yet developed their shining golden spikes. 
Other flowers found included Muehlenbeckia adpressa, Goodenia^ 
llardenber&ia, Davie sia, Ddlzoynia, Ilypochaeris radictitt;, Bor- 
o,iia } Cryptandra tomenlosa. Orchids were represented by sev- 
eral species of greenhood (Pter.ostylts) 3 Caladenia (spiders), and 
Thehmitra. 

EXCURSION TO MR. T. C. WOLLASTON'S 
AT BRIDGEWATER. 
October 19th, 1929. 
The country in the vicinity is dense!)' wooded, and ihc 
property, which is situated on a hillside, is practically surrounded 
by a wall of Stringybark (E. abliqna). Lofty pines (Pinus 
tnsignis and P. marithna) form a striking contrast to the sombre 
foliage of the eucalypts. These foreign trees have taken kindly 
to the soil and climate and have attained a prodigious growth, one 
measuring four feet in diameter. Graceful poplars, too, reached 
a height of 100 feet or more. As m most of the gardens in the 
hills the most varied climates are represented in a comparatively 
small area. Palms grew in close proximity to pines, and the 
Indigenous CalWlrls. In very few countries can so great a diversity 
oi vegetation be seen in so small, a space. This applies also to 
the shrubs and flowers. English primroses, also tulips and azalea, 
bloom side by side with the dainty plants of our native bush. A 
special feature is to be observed in the cultivation of " wild 
flowers." The favourite Petralheca (Black-eyed Susan), with its 
delicate pale pink blossom, was growing in profusion. Pultenaea 
daphnoides and other species displayed a wealth of .golden 
brownish blooms. Rich pink and white heath fepacrids) and 
deep azure Lii.Jiospermum were greatly admired. These native 
plants, will grow only under conditions to which they are accus- 
tomed in their natural habitat, and flourish best on a somewhat 
stony hillside. Among ornamental trees the shapely cedrus 
deodora was conspicuous. The dark brown foliage of Primus 
japonica (the Japanese plum), the vivid green of the maple, the 
rhus. and liquidambar formed a very pleasing contrast. The 
native blackwood is also a very handsome tree, the deep- emerald 
of the foliage enhanced by the darker tints of trunk and branches. 



S.A. NAT.. VOL. XI. 

November, 1929. Visit to BofCanic Garden.. 19 

VISIT TO THE BOTANIC GARDEN. 
November 2nd, 1929. 

Several species of Leptos permit m were observed, including 
L. laevigatmn, from which Dr. Anderson, the botanist of Cap'- 
tain Cook's expedition, made a kind of tea, and in consequence 
the tree is commonly known as the teatree (mistakenly spelled 
ti-tree, the name of an entirely different plant). The paper bark 
(Melaleuca stypkelloides) owes its vernacular name to the 
strikingly white bark. The red cedar of Queensland is known as 
producing the iinest timber of any Australian tree, tough in texture 
and yet admitting the finest polish. A peculiarity of the red cedar 
grown in Queensland is that it is bare both in January and July, 
but in South Australia only in July. The Christmas bush 
(native Box) is well known all over the hills. Usually seen as a 
small shrub, it attains a tree-like growth in the Botanic Garden. 
Members of the pine family are in considerable numbers, includ- 
ing the Bunya (Armicaria Bidwillii), the seeds in whose large 
■cones are relished by the aborigines. Several stately poplars form 
a fine contrast in their vivid green foliage to the more sombre 
tints of the gums. The Black Bean trees (Castanospermum 
australe) has bright green shining leaves. These trees often reach 
a height of 150 feet, with a diameter of 7 feet near the base. The 
evergreen mountain cherry of California (Prunus ilicifolia) thrives 
well in the garden, also the Californian laurel, known as 
U mb ell ul aria CaLifotniax. Other trees observed included the 
"weeping myall from Central Australia. Among small native 
plants Correa rubra is one of the prettiest, and is commonly 
know r n as the native fuchsia, on account of its bell-shaped flowers. 
A conspicuous flower, a mass of brilliant scarlet, near the Museum 
of Economic Botany, is the spear lily (Doryanthss excelsa). The 
remarkable partnership lor mutual advantage between plants and 
insects is well exemplified in the Arum criiiUum, whose strongly- 
offensive odor attracts crowds of blowflies. The Geraldton wax 
flower is another highly prized bloom. Near the palm house many 
plants were in full bloom, among which the Mcsemhrianthemum 
(pigface) was conspicuous with its mass of pink blossoms. 
Grevillea rosviarhiljolia is one of our hardiest native plants, .and 
some of these planted in an English garden withstood the rigours 
of a European winter, when most other plants succumbed to the 
fierce eold. 



S.A. NAT., VOL- XI. 

20 Lecture, 1929. November, 1929. 

LECTURES. 

October 15th, 1929. 

Mr. A. M. Lea, of the Museum, spoke on the insects oF 
New Guinea. The mass of New Guinea insects are allied to 
those found in Northern Australia, Fiji, New Hebrides, and 
Mala}' Peninsula, but each island lias some peculiar to itself. 
About a dozen cases from the Museum containing many species 
of brilliantly-coloured insects of fantastic outlines including 
Orthoptcra (straight-winged), Coleoptera (sheath- winged), 
Hymenoptera (membrane winged), and Lepidoptera (scaly 
winged) were shown by Mr. Lea. 

The lecturer related in an amusing interlude how he had 
employed the domestic cat to collect insects. Some of the walking 
stick insects are over a foot long. The females cannot fly, but the 
males can. A case of wasps, ants, and bees were shown. One of 
the wasps exhibited had a formidable sting of unusual length. 
Carpenter bees from Torres Strait and Queensland were found in 
this case. An uncommon ant, the green tree ant, is one of the 
worst pests of tropical Australia. Tt does not sting; it bites, and 
in two seconds it will crawl all over one. They build nests in trees 
by joining the leaves. They work in unison. One ant will grasp 
a leaf with its mouth, another will seize another adjacent leaf and 
pull them together as near as possible. The}' use the living 
threads from the larvae to weave them together. If the gap is 
too great they crawl down the bodies of suspended ants and thus 
form a living chain, which swings in the breeze until the lowest 
ant can seize the bough desired (a feat comparable to the 
manoeuvre of the spider monkeys of Brazil). With these ants 
lives a strange butterfly covered with white flocculent scales. If 
an ant is rash enough to bite at this butterfly he gets his mouthful 
of this unpalatable material, and promptly releases his hold. 
When the butterfly is full grown it drops the white scales, and 
wisely seeks a new home. 

Professor J. B. Cleland in the first place made an eloquent 
plea for support in the maintenance of Flinders Chase, Kangaroo 
Island. Financially, the Chase was in a bad way, and he hoped 
that all interested in our rare and distinctive native fauna would, 
by their subscriptions, also by systematic canvassing, do their 
bit in assisting this worthy enterprise. Professor Cleland then 
gave a graphic description, illustrated by many excellent slides, 
of the scientific expedition to the MacDonnell Ranges to study the 
aborigines at the Hermannsburg .Mission Station. It was 
organised by Dr. T. D. Campbell, mainly with the view of 
snthropolosic&l research, and consisted of eiq-ht members. 



e South Austrl 



The Journal of the Field Naturalists' Section of the Eoyai 

Society of South Australia and of the South Australian 

Aquarium Society. 



Adelaide 



VOL. XI. 







CONTENTS. 



w 






The authors 

t] and < 

, North 1 i 






Published Quart 




EPENCE 




Adelaide. 


:ndle Street, 


Felstead 5: 




, 'Fhoce C. 1581 



Vice-Cha. 



OFFICERS, 1929-30. 



■RBERT M. 






1 Kd., 1 



ProIV 

J. F. BAILEY 



Lommutce: 



ND, Messrs. A. J. M0RIS( 
, J. A. HOGAN, I 
IRELAND. 



I B. CLELA 
SELWAY, J. M. BLAt 

ECETT, B 



s'ElL M< 



EXCURSION 



LECTURES 



•Jun. 17- 








NITHQLOGICAL 



OCIAT^OS 

South Australian Naturalist 




Vol XJ, 



FEBRUARY, 1930. 



No. 2. 



fc 



NOTES ON THE BOTANY OF CENTRAL 
AUSTRALIA.* 

PART J l. 
By |. Burton Clklaxd. M.I). 

(2). THE FOOTHILLS, MOUNTAINS and GORGES. 

The ranges and hills arc all exceedingly stony, the stones often 
loose and varying from small pieces to great rocky masses. The 
lower hills and outliers often have gentle slopes and rounded sum- 
mits and there are all gradations op to precipitous and broken 
cliffs. It will thus be seen that much of the available foothold 
for plants is occupied by stones and rocks, that on the summits 
a Tiff especially on the exposed northern aspects the plants are 
subjected to intense xerophytic conditions over long periods, that 
the rocky covering off which the occasional rain at once runs, 
tends to concentrate tins rainfall on the adjacent soil so as per- 
haps to double the quantity thus supplied and at the same time 
the shadows cast by the rocks tend to reduce evaporation, and 
that in the many crevices and shelters, especially those with a 
southern aspect, considerable protection against the sun is to 
be obtained. In consequence of these features, the vegetation 
varies from place to place. One may say in general that where 
1 he exposure is not too great and the soil is of some depth, such 
small shrub-like trees as mulga (Acacia sp.) grow in abundance 
with Porcupine grass (Triodia) in between. The native Cypress 
Pine (Callilris robusta var. microcarpa) is also often common. 
Bloodwoods (Eucalyptus pyrophore or E, tcnninalis) occur as 
scattered small trees on the lower parts. Growing out from 
crevices amongst great rocky masses, usually on the lower and 
more sheltered aspects, are Native Figs (Fiats macro poda) 

Footnote- * Continued from Thi South Australian Naturalist, Vol. XI., No. 1 
November, 1929, p. +. where by inadvertence tin* title appear *s 

"\ur« on the Koianv of South Vn^Ualra." 



s.\. \' vr., VOL. xr 
22 Notes on the Botany oj_ CJ. (Part //.') February, 1930. 

forming low intricately spreading hushes with small fruits, as 
is well seen quite near Stuart. In similar situations, and 
ascending some distance up the rocky sides, handsome Cycads 
(Macrozamia MacDonnellii') are to be seen at Heavitree Gap, in 
the low hills beside Stuart, at Simpson's Clap, and at Palm Valley, 
but not at Glen Helen, [fere also, where somewhat sheltered, 
Tccoma doratoxyllon sends out long, bending branches and has 
rather small flowers, white with a little pink. The small fern, 
CheUanthes tcmrijotia; the Native Tobacco (Nicotiana 
suaveolens ) , pricklv Solan urns. Trichiniums, composites and 
grasses occupy foothold where they can. 

When we visited Glen Helen, where the Finke cuts its way 
through the MacDonnells, we climbed to the top of the hill that 
forms the west: side of this narrow and precipitous trap. The top 
of this hill was covered with loose stones 1 to 6 inches in diameter. 
The appearance was that of intense dryness, exposed day after 
day to the fierce rays of a nearly vertical sun. Harsh tufts of 
Porcupine Grass (Triodia sp.), with long terete leaves like 
knitting-needles but sharp at the end. each tuft H- to 3 feet across, 
were scattered over the surface, being separated from each other 
by spaces of one to two feet, enabling one to walk without getting 
too many sharp pricks. There were a number of shrubs of 
GrevUIea Wickami, with leaves with acute angles, many infested 
with LorantJius gibb#rulu&. There was a low shrub, not in flower 
or fruit, which could not be placed — it suggested either a pea or 
one of the ATyrtaceae. On the lower parts were a few White-wash 
Gums (Eucalyptus papuana), remarkably handsome trees when 
well-grown, with their pure white straight stems which leave a 
white bloom on the hands when rubbed. There were also a few 
shrubs of Eucalyptus gamophylla, -a species with rather glaucous 
opposite sessile leaves that grows on the lower rocky slopes. The 
only other plants were an occasional Hakea intermedia, Callitris 
robusla. Acacia validinervis with broad reticulated phyllodes, and 
the prostrate leafless Sa-rcostemma ausiralc with its milky juice. 

(3) THE WATERCOURSES AM) THEIR POOLS.— 

On the way to Hcrmannsburg, various watercourses, such as the 
Hugh and Jay Creek, were crossed and the Mission Station itself 
is on the side ol the Finke, here a wide sandy bed with a steeper 
bank on one side and on the other a slightly raised overflow 
surface. These streams were all dry except for an occasional 
saline soak in the Finke. Hi-gher up. where they cut through the 
MacDonnells, puols ol water rriay remain for vears. In all these 






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X« 


Li^Tr? 7 s 




1 ■ -*j 







Kaporilya Springs, near Hennannsburg, C.A. 
August, 1929. 

Photo—]. B. Cleland, 




Ironwood (Acacia estrophiolata). 
Missionary Plains, C.A., August, 1929. 

Photo — /, B. Cleland. 



S.A. NAT., VOL. XI. 

F ebrua ry, 1930. By ./. Burton Cieland, MJ)_ 23 

watercourses, red gums (Eucalyptus rostrata) were abundant. 
The trees were, however, usually nut. oi much girth. They differ 
from the southern form in the greater tendency for the sucker 
stems to be quadrangular and in the very large size ot" many of 
the sucker leaves. Mistletoe (Loranthus Miquelii) was present 
on .some. Grey tea-trees sometimes, formed thickets or else ap- 
peared as scattered shrubs along the larger streams. These 
Melaleucas were of two species, the commonest, with the capsules 
in clusters, being M. glomerata, the other with the capsules spread 
out on the branchlet being M. UnophyUa, A Myoponim, flower- 
ing freely, grew along the bank-side at Hermaunsburg. A prickly 
shrub with a small berry also grew on the banks of the Finke. 
At Hermaunsburg, the "flood-plains" beside the settlement were 
covered with the dry remains oi a "cane-grass" (Spintex 
paradoxus ). In the dry main-bed. Nicotiana suaveolens } a white- 
flowered Zygopkyllum and a few grasses were seen. Where there 
was saline matter in the bed of the river, as near Glen Helen, the 
prostrate Heliotropium Curassavicti m was abundant. Where 
there was suitable water, as at Kaporilya Springs, a few miles 
from Hermannsburgj Bulrushes ( Typha angustifolia), Reeds 
(Phragmites communis) and Scirpus titto-r'alis grew. Here also, 
in the wet sod, grew Samohis repens } presenting, with, its pinkish 
flowers, a different appearance to the plants seen in salt marshes 
near the coast. Stemodia viscosa was also abundant near the 
water at Kaporilya. On the Model at Alice Springs grew 
Plumbago Zeylanica and also the queer-looking Amarantaceoufi 
plant Acrysanthes aspera with its reJIexed flowers. 



o: — - 



ADDITIONS TO OUR LIBRARY. 

Opca-air Studies in Australia." By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S., T.R.M.S.. etc. 
\j:\ don: Dent & Sons. 10/6. 

A most charming little volume for the genera) reader who is interested 
in the world around him. Mr, Chapman's articles relate mainly t.< 
\ ictorian localities rich in fossil forms and in evidence of tin 1 
geological changes oi the past. 



Science Notes. 



s. A. NAT., vol. XI- 
February, 1930. 



SCIENCE NOTES. 
(By "Tellurian" in "The Australasian.") 



THE ANCESTRY OK MAN. 
Man, who has classified himself in and among the animals, 
and who has (in his wisdom) bestowed upon his particular species 
ihe name of "Homo sapiens," is very curious regarding his 
ancestry, The question is far from being settled. New dis- 
coveries are continually being made. Fresh theories, or modifi- 
cations of old theories, are required to embody the fresh 
discoveries. And so we slowly move forward. 

The young man whose interest has just been aroused in this 
fascinating subject must be warned against accepting any state- 
ment or theory or diagram as (inal and definite. The new evidence 
to which \ve refer corns not (Mils' from the geologist and the 



ethnologist in their investigations ol skulls and of imp! 



ements 




The study of the psychology ol primitive people helps us; the 
anatomy of man and the higher vertebrates is of very great 
importance; the evolutionary history ol horses, camels, elephants, 
and whales gives us new ideas that bear closely on the matter; 
and the study of ancient geography and past climates of the world 
must also be considered. 



S.A. NAT., VOL- XT- 

February. 1930. Primitive Human Skulls, 



Lately, in China, fresh discoveries have been made ot the skulls 
of a primitive type of man. These have been proved to be of 
first-rate importance, and have been linked up with similar skulls 
found in the same locality at intervals since 1903. These remains 
were found in the same locality at intervals since 1903. These 
remains were found in the lower Pleistocene rocks, and have 
characteristics quite their own. On them a new race of primitive 
man lias been raised, with the name Sinaiuhropus pekinensis (the 
Chinese man ol Pekin). We have read so much ol the discovery 
oi new skulls of primitive man that we may think they are ol 
endless number. Actual!}', as we shall see, the number of accepted 
primitive skulls relates to only about 130 individual persons. 



PRIMITIVE HUMAN SKULLS. 

\\ e have said that about 1 30 accepted primitive skulls arc 
known. In some cases, naturally, the skulls are incomplete; in 
i 'tiier cases there are a lew additional body bones available. But 
the skulls are oi more importance: not only are they usualK 
better preserved, but they tel! us much more about their original 
owners than any other bones would do. In the multiplicity of 
skulls that have been reported, we may have wondered whether 
tile accumulation ol material was not being overdone. Mere, 
then, is Protessor Henry Fairfield Osbonfs list ot" the known 
primitive remains : — 

(a) Piltdown: the ^dawn-man.'* Eoanthropus dawsoni. twe 
specimens. 

( b) Trinil. Java : the "ape-man," Pithecanthropus erectus, 
two specimens. 

(c) I leidelberg: the "ancient man;' Paiseanthropus heidel- 
bergensis : one speciment (possibly two others). 

(d) China: the "Chinese man, 71 Sinanthropus pekinensis, 27 
specimen?. 

(e) Neanderthal: the Neanderthal man, Pakeanthropus 
neanderthalensiSj 48 specimens (plus). 

( I ) Cro-magon; the Cro-magnon man. Homo sapiens, 42 
specimens. 

If you add these up you will find they total 124. In addition. 
there are stray skulls which have not been finally accepted, or 
which have not yet + "ound a place in the main list; of these, we 
may mention the R-" <\desian and Talgai skulls, the more pro- 
blematic Taungs skuii, and others. This table will. I am sure, 
clarify the minds o( many interested readers regarding the chief 
relies of primitive man. 



26 



Osborn*s Thfu/y. 

OSBORN'S THEORIES 



A. MAT., VO 

Fksru vry 



xi. 
19.50. 



Ij would not be appropriate here to attempt to discuss 
Osborn's theories oi man's ancestry in detail. They comprise in 
at least two important points a distinct breakav^ ay iron; older 
theories. Init it may be added that, so far as man's ape ancestry 
is cpncernedj there arc many workers who have long maintained 
that man did not evolve by way of the apes — that, the only factor 
in common was an ancestral stock, far back lit lime, from whic i 
both groups evolved. Professor Wood-Jones lias indeed demon- 
strated that in certain important I eat ures man is anatomical] ■ 
much more primitive than the apes. 



ne oi 



point emphasised by Osborn is that man's origin 



goes back into the Fertiary, that is, pre-PIeistocene time. Here 
also there lias been a tendene; for a long time among >mr:c oi 
t he best workers to lengthen I he period previously allowed h r 
man s history. The geologist and the physiographer also are 
finding that the number of years usually allotted to Pleistocene 
time (about 1.250.0(H) years) is far too short. Right back, from 
he time of Bishop I ssher, who dated Creation as 4004 B.C., 
man has had continually to yield to the pressure of inevitable 
fact, and to extend his periods oi earth bistor) still further and: 
further back in time. 

Pn ifessor Qsbbrn, whose complete address on this matter 
appears in "Nature" (January 11. 1930). concludes his claim for 
the greater antiquity o1 man as follows :- — "To my mind the 
human brain is the most marvellous and mysterious object in the 
whole universe, and no geological period seems too long to allow 
for its natural evohit ion." 



Programmes for the year have been posted to members. 
Application for copies should be made to the Hon. Secretary. 
Members will notice that the programme provides for on!; one 
-•harabanc trip. There has been a debit balance on these trips 
for some time past. ;i-\d the Com nut tee has, very reluctantly, 
decided to reduce their number. 



S.A. NAT.. VOL. XI. 

Febki art, 1 930. Excursions. 2? 

EXCURSION TO BRIDGWATER. 

November 16th, 1929. 

A i'airh large p-arty tra^ elied b\ train to Bridge water by 
train to Bridgewater under the guidance oi Mr, Ising. I nfor- 
tunatel) the afternoon proved ver) wet and members had to seek 
shelter rather than seai ch for specimens in the dripping sci ub. 
However, the walks were nol v- holl y unproductive, and a fair 
number oi flow ering plan is ^^ ere seen and identified, and Mr. 
[sing was able to point out man] unique features o1 some oi the 
species growing amongst the gums oi the lulls gorges oi Cox's 
Creek. 

EXCURSION TO MR. W. BURDETT'S GARDENS, 
BASKET RANGE. 

November 30th, 1929. 

\ vti \ Large par £3 oi members travelled to Mr. Burdett s 
oi chard a! Basket Range. The scenery of this part oi the hills 
■includes some oi the most strikingly beautiful scenes in our State. 
I he pari j ;m ailed t heinseh eg oi their host's kind invitation to 
sample the fruit oi some oi the hundreds oi cherry trees then in 
luil bearing. 

Mi". Burdett J s hobby is the growing oi nam e flowers i rom 
every part oi the Continent, as well as many species collected in 
Foreign lands. r I he colled ion oi Australian How ering shrubs is 
probably unique in the Commonwealth. Even in November 
there was a wonderful show oi Sowers oi ever) hue. Especially 
striking w ere the many varieties oi blue flowers, particularly of 
the many species oi / eschenaultias, A stony hillside, otherwise 
valueless, is clothed with profuse growths ol plants from every 
State in the Commonwealth and from South Africa and other 
■countries. 

The party were received by Mr. and Mrs. Burdett, and 
turned loose in the cherry orchard. 

'I lie | airty were t hen invited to ins peel the special feat ures 
of the garden — -the growth oi native flora. A line avenue of 
stately eucalypts, still young, bin with every evidence of vigorous 
.and health}- promise, was first examined. Besides the South Aus- 
tralian species, most oi the other States were represented on each 
side oi the sinuous path. These included Eucalyptus Tetraptera 
(Irom the four-cornered involucre), with its broad leaf-like 
petiole). E. Alpina (a mere shrub in the Grampian*, hut here 



Excursion. 



S.A. NAT.j VOL. XI. 

Februahy, 1930. 



growing into a forest tree); (i. Sieberiana, from the Australian 1 
Alps; E. Saligna (the willow gum); E. Coriacea (leathery leaves, 
to protect them from heat and drought) ; E. Radlata (ray 
branched); E. Pressiana, E. Sideroxylon (iron wooel), E. Tetra- 
gona (lour cornered); E. Poly ant he via (man)' ornaments), E. 
Piperita (the "pepper gum," from the shape o\ its leaves), E. 
Rubida (candlebark), E. Goniocalyx (angular calyx), E. Tor- 
quata (a beautiful ornamental tree, suitable for street planting), 
E, Sepulcralis, E. Megacarpa (great fruited) . E. Macro car pa 
(the beautiful large flowering gum of \\ estern Australia), ana 
main- others of the eucalypt family. 

Another typical family, "the Grevilleas," were represented 
by many species, including Grevillea eriostachya (woollyearcd). 
(.'. Stenocarpa (narrow fruit), and C. decides (olive like). The 
gorgeous kangaroo paws were seen in several rare colours- — - 
yellow, scarlet, green, and green with black base. 

Magnificent proteas from South Africa contrasted with the 
gorgeous Australian waratah, one of the finest ol our indigenous 
growths. Blue Leschenaultias formed some azure patches. The 
rare scarlet variety of this latter flower was also noted. The' 
"Manuel Flower" and the Xew South Wales Christmas bush. 
Pimeleas, daisies from the Grampians, the wild currant 
(Acrotnche) horn the Barossa hills; hibiscus o\ several varieties. 
The "Suthern Cross" from Albany is a perfect floral replica of 
the well-known constellation. V crhenrdia, the dessert rose, many 
beautiful varieties of boronia and erica and epacris; C heir anther a 
(hand Bower) added to the attractions of this charming 
pleasaunce. Fine blooms of CalHstemon (bottle brush) and 
Daviesia, a peculiar kind ol erica, with viscid leaves, which had 
caught a number ol insects, and even a small bird. 

Besides the eucalypts several varieties of firs and the 
Queensland kauri wcvt: observed; also the silver leaf of South 
Africa. 



After the inspection the party weve entertained at afternoon 
tea, and a hearty vote of thanks was accorded to Air. and Mrs_ 
Burdett and family. 



s.A. NAT., VOL. ST. 

February, 1930. Shell Collectors' CluL _ 29 

SHELL COLLECTORS' CLUB. 



The fortnightly meetings have been well attended. 
Univalves which have been recently reviewed are: — 

Family Plei rotomariidae. 
Shells minute, trochiform, characterized by a deep slit in 
the outer margin of the body whorl. The part of the slit which 
has been progressively filled up during growth, iorms a band 
round the whorls. Schismope atkinsoni (Ten. Woods). S. 
ptdchra (Petterd) have been taken by numbers en the sand-spit 
at 1 he. Outer Harbour, but both are rare. 

Family Fissurellidae. 

Shells conical, limpet shaped, depressed with apex in front 
of centre. Anterior margin notched or apex perforated. Scutus 
Anatlnus (Donovan). Specimens were tabled up to 5 inches 
in length. Members have taken this shell on various rocky 
coasts of the State. This is a distinct species from S. antipodes 
of N.S.W. The animal is much larger than the shell and is 
blackish. 

Tugaiia cicatricosa (A. Adams). Specimens shown measured 
about one inch. A small bare patch appears at the apex — hence 
its specific name. 

T, parmapholdea (Q. & (],). Exhibited specimens were 
about one inch and a quarter, and were taken at Waljaroo. 
Sculpture is finer than T, cicatricosa. Shell depressed; anterior 
margin slightly channelled. 

Montfortula rugosa (Q. k (J.) has been taken at Pt. 
Willunga, a specimen measured 12 m.m. x 5 m.m. and is un- 
common. 

Family Haliotidae. 

Ear shaped shell with small flat spire; aperture very wide, 
iridescent ; having a row ol perforations near the outer edge; 
commonl>' known as mutton-fish, or sea-ear, the "abalone" of 
California. 

HaHntis albicans (Q. & G.). The largest of the genus in 
South Australia. This shell is smooth-backed, although the 
growth lines are plainly visible. Members have taken this alive 
at Port Victoria and Stansbun . but it is usually considered a 
deep water species. Specimen measured l'\ in. x 6} in. 

H. cydobates (Peron). Rounded, elevated, medium size. 
Common, attached to Pinnas at Outer Harbour. 3*} in. x 34 in. 



8X NAT., vol- Xi- 
30 Shell Collectors 3 Club. February, 1930 . 

//. roei (Gray. I Uncommon — occasionally taken at Pt. 
Wiliunga and Capo Spencer on rocks at low water. This shell 
is distinguished by its close accrem.en.ted growth lines. Medium 
size. Specimen on table: 3| in. x 2-£ in. 

//. naevosa (Martyn). The common type in South Aus- 
tralia on rocks generally. Has a flat back. 5 in. x 3f in. 

//. naevosa var- tubipora. Has elevated or projecting tubes 
and is concave between the spire and the tubes. Specimens taken 
at Robe. Xot reported from St. Vincent or Spencer Gulfs. 
S\ in. x 3^ in. 

//. conicopora (Peron), Syn: 11. emmae. Distinguished by 
a well defined high ridge or band, vein-like, about midway be- 
tween spire and the tube-like perforations, there being a corre- 
sponding groove within the shell. Pt. \\ illunga — uncommon. 
3g in. x 2£ in. 

I\\m ily Stomatidae. 

Ear-shaped, regular; spire small; large aperture. Xacrcous. 

Stomatella vmbficata (Lamarck). Shell like Haliotis, but 
without perforations. Has a horny operculum. Common under 
stones at Pt. Noarlunga. Specimens averaged about 1 inch in 
length. 

Gena strigosa (Adams). A frail nacreous car-shaped shell 
about 1 inch x -\ inch. Colour varies in browns and greens and 
variegated. Smooth with very tine st nations. No operculum. 
Common on Guli beaches. 

Family Troctudak. 

Shells conical and nacreous. 

There is no true Trochus in South Australia. 

Clanculus (Mont fort). Australia is the metropolis of this 
genus. Foreign collectors appreciate the several species, some of 
which are common on our beaches. The genus may be briefly 
described :— 

Shell conoidal — whorls mostly granulated — marked- 
ly striated — brightly coloured. Aperture contracted, not 
entire; outer lip denticulated within. Umbilicus runs up 
almost to spire. Inner lip denticulated. Size ranges 
from \ in. up to 1 in. in height. 

Clanculus dunkeri ( Koch). Very common, bluish shell, 
turning to dull red on exposure. Average about f in. 

C. flagellatus (Philippi). Average about £ in. Not so com- 
mon as dunkeri. is more or less irregularly blotched or lined. 
Whitish in colour with brown markings, ladder-like striations 
between rows ol nodules. Afore angulated than dunkeri. 

C, eucheloides (Tate). About § in. Rounded with tiny 
nodules and well defined lines. Rare. Has been taken at Pt. 
\\ illunga. 



- t» 



S.A. NAT., VOT.. XI. 

1ji-;hki\\ky. 1930. S7//7/ Co llectors* Club, 3t 

C. limbatus (Q. 5c G.). About j in. Somewhat similar to 
flagellatus, but has more pronounced crown blotches. Body 
whorl of limbatus is also more angulated. Common on roc v ' 
near low water at Pt. Willunga. 

C. ochroleucus (Phil). The least nodulous of the genus in 

South Australia. General appearance is ochre like. Devoid of 

distinct coloration. Not found on local beaches. About \ in. 

C. piebejus. (Phil). Body whorl not angulated. About 

\ in. Pt. Willunga, on rocks. 

Members will exchange shells with foreign collectors. 
F. K. GODFREY, 
Acting Secretary, 

Epworth Buildiing, Adelaide. 

Box 951H, G.P.O., Adelaide. 
Phone Cent. 3026. 

Phone F. 2455 (Evening). 

SHELL COLLECTORS' CLUB. 
Excursion. 

On the holiday, January 27th. a party of nine members of 
the Shell Club went to the Outer Harbour under the leadership 
of their Chairman. Mr. W. j. Kimber. The tide was low and the 
party got out on to the Pinna bed amongst the weed quite near 
to where the bank shelves suddenly, probably 30 feet, into the 
channel of the Port River. Here were taken Pinna dolobrata 
fSyn: P. inermis), attached to which were found the Chiton 
Ischnockiton contractus (large specimens in a range of colours), 
Murex trijonms, Conus anemone. In dead shells of Pinna were 
found Pyrene Uncolnensis. Amongst the weed were taken 
Vasc'wlaria australasia, Fvsinvs aust rails , Pert en medius. 

Contained within the valves of a dead Pinna was taken an 
Octopus with a spread of nearly a foot. Mr. Edwards took this 
home in a jar. Some very small Octopi were also obtained. 

After lunch a walk across the sand Hats round the next point, 
up river brought the party to a beach of dead shells and a search 
here resulted in Mr. Kimber making the best find of the day, 
Murex HvibUicatus, a rare shell of about one inch in length. 
Members lying prostrate and using lenses, some very good minute 
shells were taken and shell sand collected for further examination 
at. home. Back over the sand flats, under rock fragments, were 
taken live Cominclla eburnea, and Monodonta conslricta. On. 
the sand. Modiolus inconstant, Laternula crecclna. Mar da 
scalarhui, Marcia corrugata } Marcia aphrodinoides, Bittiwm 
granarium 3 were added to the spoils. 

— F. K. Godfrey. 



Our Exchanges. 



s.a. nat., vol. xi. 
February, 1930. 



OUR EXCHANGES. 



The Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of S.A. Vol, LIIL 

The volume for 1929 contains many Important papers dealing 
with various branches of science. One of the most interesting 
to our members is Dr. 1'Vnner's "A Geographical Enquiry 
into the Growth, Distribution, and Movement o L > Population 
in South Australia, 1836-1927."'' Prof. Howchin writes on 
the Geological History of the River Murray, and Professor 
David publishes further notes on the Newly-Discovered Fossils 
in the Adelaide Series (Lipalian or Proterozoic) . Mr, Lea 
adds additional notes on Coleoptera, with description of new 
species, and Mr. Hale has several notes on Crustaceans from 
Queensland and West Australia. There are a number of other 
very important papers contained in the 400 pages of th< 
Proceedings. 

i. Trie Australian Forestry Journal. September and December Numbers. 

3 The Queensland Naturalist. October, 1929. 

4. The \ ictorian Naturalist . November, (929: December, 1929; January. 

19:0; February, 1930. 

5. The W.A. Naturalist Club fournar. November. 1929. 

6. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. October, 1929. 

The trees, etc., ol Papua are deal! with in this number. 

7. The Annual Report ol the \\ cods and Forests Department for S.A. for 

1928-9. 

Diagrams illustrate the remarkable increase in the area n'anted 
during recent years, In the year ending June 30, 1929. this 
area exceeded 5,500 acres. 

8. "The Work ol the Division of Economic Entomology." By Dr. R. J. 

Thiyard, M.V. D.Se,, KR.S. 

9 Journal oi the American Museum ol Natural History. Quarterly Numbers 

from January, 1919, to December, 1929. 

These volumes published quarterly by the American Museum of 
Natural History ot NeW York, contain articles of topical 
interest in matters of Natural History, Exploration, etc. A 
ureat feature is the wealth of fine illustrations, many of them, 
especially in the later numbers, primed in full colour. They 
represent s mine oi interesting and authoritative information 
lor the investigation of our members. 

If). The Australian Naturalist. January, L93& 

II. The S.A. Ornithdofist, January, [930. 




he Journal of the Field Naturalists ' Section of the Royal 

Society of South Australia and of the South Australian 
luarium Society. 



Adelaide 






VOL. XI. 



M.Q. ^K 







i31 



The 

South Australian Naturalist 



Vol. XI. 



MAY, 1930. 



No. 3. 



NOTES ON THE BOTANY OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 

PART III* 

Plate IV. 
By ]. Burton Clelakp, M.D. 



(4) PALM VALLEY AND ITS FLORA. 

Palm Valley partakes both of the characteristics of the gorges 
and of the watercourses. The palms, however, give it such a 
unique feature that we shall describe its flora under a special 
heading and refer to the significance to be attached to this palm 
and other plants in Central Australia. 

The road to Palm Valley (about 14 miles south of Hermanns- 
burg) and the Glen of Palms runs down the Finke Valley along 
the Finke Gorge. It is very rough and rocky in places and sandy 
in others, winding in and out and crossing the river-bed several 
times. In the bed itself, River Red Gums (Eucalyptus rostrata) 
are numerous. Melaleuca (jlomevata is common. Near the en- 
trance to the Gorge a beautiful Eucalypt (E. papuana), with pure 
white barrel which gives off a white powder when rubbed, may be 
found growing on the side and away from the water. Bloodwoods 
(either E. pyrophora or E. termhtalis) grow amongst the rocks. 
Triodia tussocks also grow in this situation. Buck Porcupine 
Grass, the- largest of the three species of Triodia occurring in this 
district, is found in the little valleys and even in the bed of the 
river itself. Here we found a plant flowering luxuriantly. By 
kicking into the base of a tussock some of the tall flower stems 
were dislodged when they could be handled without undue prick- 
ing of the fingers by the needle-sharp leaves. Mr. J. M. Black 
found that the Buck Porcupine of the Finke Valley was. an uu- 
described species and has named it Triodia longiceps. 




S.A. NAT., VOL. XI. 

34 Notes on the Botany of C.A. May, 1930. 



About 10 miles down from Hermannsburg, the first palms 
are seen with their crowns of fan-shaped leaves towering up 50 
to 8o feet from amongst the Euealypts and shrubs in the river- 
bed. Here one branches off to the right (westerly) to Palm 
Valley or one continues on along the Finke Gorge some three 
miles or so to the Glen of Palms. We did the former, travelling 
about 4-£ miles up this subsidiary valley. Bold and often nearly 
vertical cliffs close the winding valley on its northerly side, whilst 
on the opposite aspect they are less steep and tend more to be 
dissected by further branches or to be etched out into bold bluffs. 
The palms {Livistona Mariae) naturally prefer the more shady 
side and grow in abundance along the creek bed and at the base 
of the cliffs, but some nevertheless are to be seen on the southern 
aspect, more fully exposed to the sun and dryness. Here they 
often make striking - pictures as their crowns appear silhouetted 
against the sky-line with distant cliffs as a background. The 
original estimate by the Horn Expedition of only about 100 adult 
palms seemed to us to be far under the mark. Palms were seen 
in all stages of growth. We noticed, as they did, many young 
ones growing amongst the rocks. The butt of one they cut down 
to measure (it reached 6o feet) and to search for animal life 
amongst its leaves was still to be seen. The many fallen palm 
leaves made dangerous walking amongst the rocks if one stood on 
the slippery petiole. Livistona Mariae is a fan palm and is 
closely allied to the Cabbage Palm (L. austral is) of the East 
Coast as for instance in the Tllawarra of New South Wales. 

Next in interest to the palms, found only in Palm Valley and 
the (ilen of Palms, are magnificent cycads (Macrozamia Mac- 
donnellii) each plant a striking feature with its long spreading 
pinnate fronds. The nuts are much larger than those of the 
Macrozamias seen near Perth and in New South Wales. They 
weigh If to 2\ oz., and the largest measure nearly 2-£ by H inches. 
The cycads also prefer the shaded cliffs on the north side and do 
not descend into the creek bed like the palms. A remarkable 
feature was to see large specimens growing on mere ledges of 
rock high up on vertical cliff sides. No bird surely could have 
carried the nuts there— these were too large — though the natives 
say that the Bower-bird can and does carry them. No mammal 
could have reached some of these situations. How then could 
the cycads have got there and how long had they been there? 
We did not visit the hill top above the site where we noticed the 
cycads. but we climbed to other similar positions. On such bare 
stony sun-exposed tops cycads do not now grow. But it seems 



S.A. NAT., VOL. XT. 

May, 1930. By J. Burton Clelmd, Ml). ___ _ 35 

evident that at one time they must have done so and the nuts. 
must have fallen over the cliff-edge to be caught on the ledges 
where plants are still to be seen. It must be many thousand 
years back and the climate must have been moister when cycads- 
grew also on the tops of the ranges. Are the ones we see growing 
now the direct offspring of these long-departed cycads growing 
on top? The Macrozamia is a slow-growing plant, Eventually 
a very thick trunk-like base is formed. These trunks are pro- 
bably in some cases hundreds of years, possibly thousands of 
years old. But though one may attribute great antiquity, possibly 
two or three thousand years, to occasional cycads, it can hardly 
be that the plants we see now grew from the seed that fell from 
those cliffs before the Pharaohs were or Babylon's glory had 
appeared. The original cycads on the ledges, some male, some 
female, would in the latter case set seed. Thus, as old age over- 
took one here or there, if indeed old age does overtake such plants, 
its place might be taken by the germination of some nut that it 
had shed. This species of cycad grows not only at Palm Valley 
but elsewhere in the MacDonnell Ranges as at Heavitree and 
Simpson's Gaps and near the township of Stuart. Its nearest 
allies are far away in the Northern Territory, in Queensland, in 
New South Wales, and in Western Australia. Another plant, 
Trema cannabina, grows in the MacDonnell Ranges as at Simp- 
son's Gap and also in the Illawarra brushes. A Tecovia (T. 
doratoxylon) also occurs, which was for long considered identical 
with that of coastal New South Wales (T. australis R.Br.). 
How can the presence of these four species, especially the palm 
and the cycad, suggestive of moist semi-tropical jungle, be ex- 
plained? They must surely all be relics of an ancient flora, 
indications that at one time a jungle with a moister atmosphere 
and good rainfall stretched north and east and perhaps west as 
well, linking up Central Australia's vegetation with the coastal 
brushes of the East Coast and the cycads of the South-west. The 
fertile plains- of Adelaide probably then were not and the 
diprotodon whose remains have been found at L, Callabonna, 
doubtless roamed amongst the luxuriant vegetation. Eheu 
f ugaces ! 

I have made enquiries as to the nearest places in the other 
States in which palms are known to grow. In F. 'Bailey's Flora 
of Queensland, there is reference to some palm leaves from the 
Campaspe R. which it was thought might belong actually to this 
Central Australian species, Livlstona Mariae, F.v.M. Mr. W. D. 
Francis, of the Botanic Gardens, Brisbane, has kindly located for 
me the Campaspe R. of Queensland, which is not very far from 
Charters Towers. Nothing further seems known of this. palm. 






S.A. NAT., VOL. XX 

36 Notes on the Botany of C.A. _ _ May, 1930 . 

Amongst the specimens of palms in the Brisbane Herbarium, the 
nearest locality sites to Central Australia are Mt Perry and the 
Bunya Mountains for the palm Archonto phoenix Cunninghamii 
Wendl. et Drude, 

Mr. E. Cheel, Curator of the Herbarium, Botanic Gardens, 
Sydney, tells me that Liznstona aitsfralis Mart, occurs at Stan- 
well Park, the Illawarra generally, Cambewarra Mountain, Berry, 
Kangaroo Valley, Bateman's Bay, Geringong, and at Orbost in 
Victoria. 

In Ewart and Davies' "The Flora of the Northern Territory," 
L. Mariae is given for the MacDonnell Ranges and it is stated as 
being recorded for 'Arnhem/s Land, R. Brown; Adam River, 
McAdam Range, F.V.Mueller; Port Darwin (Scultz) ; Port 
Essington, Armstrong; Liverpool River and Wood Island, 
Gulliver/ L. inermis R. Br. is given for the Islands of the Gulf 
of Carpentaria, L. Alfredi F.vM. for North Australia, Kcniia 
Wendlandiaua F.v.M. for Liverpool River and K. acuminata 
Mend, for North Australia. Professor A. J. Ewart tells me that 
he has not been able to verify personally the records of L. Mariae 
for the far north. 

Mr. C. A. Gardner, Government Botanist of Western Aus- 
tralia, says that Livistona is the only genus of palms in that State. 
He says: — "L. Alfredi F.v.M. occurs at Millstream Station on 
the Ashburton River and the palm at Yardie Creek near the 
North-West Cape is probably the same species. L. Eastoni 
Gardner is a North Kimberlcy species found around Admiralty 
Gulf, the tallest of our palms. L. inermis is a Kimberley species 
extending almost throughout the district but never common. 

As regards Cycads, Mr. Cheel tells me that the Sydney 
Herbarium lias a specimen of a form of Macro.camia spiralis Miq. 
from Coonabarabran, which place is about 470 miles distant 
easterly from the South Australian border, and which he thinks 
is the nearest point to Central Australia where cycads grows in 
New South Wales. 

Mr. Francis says that in the Brisbane Herbarium there is 
a specimen of Cycas Cainvsiana F.vM. from the heads of the 
Robertson and Percy Rivers. This locality is east and a little 
south of Normanton and the southern end of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria. There arc specimens of Macrommi Panli-Griliclmi 
F.v.M. from Inglewood, 50 miles east of Goondiwindi. 

Ewart and Davies cite Cycas media R.Br, for 'North-west 
and North Coasts, A. Cunningham; Port Essington, Armstrong; 



5.A. NAT., VOL. XI. 

May, 1930. By J. Burton CtekinJ, M.D. o] 

Escape Cliffs, Hulls' and Macro,::amia MacdonnclUi F.vM. for 
Simpson's Gap and (apparently) Hermannsburg. 

Air. Gardner has kindly supplied the following information 
from Western Australia: "Cycas furfuracca occurs on the moun- 
tains of the Leopold Range in the Kimherley district. It was 
described by W. V. Fitzgerald in 1918. C. Lane-Poolei Gardner 
occurs near Mt. Ham in the Central fxiuiberleys. C. basaltica 
Gardner occurs towards the estuary of the Lawley River in the 
Northern Kimberleys. C. angirittta R.Br., which Bentham in- 
cludes under C. media, occurs at Camden Barbour on the north- 
west Kimberley coast. These four arc the only recorded species 
of Cycas in Western Australia. Macror:amia. There are two 
species, M. Reidlei and M, Dyeri, The former, which is a new 
combination as yet unpublished (will appear in my census now 
nearing completion) is commonly known as M. Fraseri. It iSs 
the common Cycad Palm of 3.W. Australia, extending as far 
north as the Moore River at Mogumber and as far east as the 
Pallinup River. It is purely south-western, not exceeding the 
domain of the savannah. M. Dyeri is a closely allied species 
found on the south coast between Stokes Inlet and Israelite Bay. 
It is a much larger plant than M. Reidlei. 

A Cycad, either Macrozamia or Cycas, occurs not far from 
Marble Bar in the Pilbarra district. No botanist has collected it, 
but I have received reports of its occurrence from several persons, 
but unfortunately no specimens. It is a north-west plant.'*'' 

Mr. Gardner goes on to say: — "It will therefore be seen 
that our palms and cycads are isolated from their relatives in the 
MacDonnell Ranges by a wide strip of Eremaea. Their distribu- 
tion in Western Australia is determined by the favourable con- 
ditions of the south-west province for Macrorjamia, and the higher 
rainfall of the Kimberley district for Cycas and Livistona. These 
areas are separated from the MacDonnell Ranges by a wide strip' 
of Eremaea, which is in part arid desert. 

"I have regarded the MacDonnell Ranges as an oasis in the 
Central Australian Eremaea in which survive a few elements of 
the pan-Australian species of former times. I regard it as practi- 
cally impossible at the present time to try and trace distributions 
connecting the elements of this area with the more favoured pro- 
vinces of Australia. At the same time, since these ranges lie so 
closely to ranges near the eastern boundary of this State, it is 
possible that some outposts for a species such as Macrozamia 
Macdonnellii might still be discovered in places like Giles Pinnacle 
and the Rawlinson Ranges, but our knowledge of these botanically 
is practically nil." 



S.A. NAT., VO .rl- 

38_ Notes on the Bota ny of C.A. May, 1930. 

We roamed in delight along the creek bed and up 1 its forking, 
branches. Though the drought had been so persistent, several 
pools of water still remained amongst the rocks, being fed by 
springs. Round the edge of the water in the mud a light bright 
green plant with pink flowers turned out to be Samolus repens — ■ 
in appearance unlike the plant of the soutli found usually near 
salt water. A little Nardoo (Marsilea Drummondii) was also 
seen. Many young Sow Thistles (Sonchus oleraceus), an intro- 
duced species, weiv. coming up. Shrubs were numerous. A tea- 
tree., Melaleuca nodosa, grew in or near the water as did 
Myoporum montanum. Some Native Pines (Callitris glauca (C. 
robitsta) var. microcarpa) also grew near, these three species 
harbouring a beautiful Loranth (Loranthus Exocarpi) with scarlet 
flowers having green tips. Red Gums (Eucalyptus rostrata) were 
common. Several small shrubs of Plectranthus parvifolius with 
small bluish flowers were seen — the natives use the plant for ( 
medicine. Also growing amongst the rocks were occasional figs, 
(probably Ticus platypoda), Pittosporum phillyreoides, and 
Tecoma doratoxylon, a rock-loving shrub with long lithe bending 
branches which the natives straighten by means of heat and use 
for spears, hence the specific name. High up on ledges of the 
rock in the shade was a little composite, locally called 'edelweiss* 
from its resemblance to this plant. It had broad green sticky 
leaves and heads of pure white flowers, as yet unexpanded. It 
looked rather like a Cassinia in appearance, but turned out to be 
a Helichrysum, probably H. Thomsoni. Native tobacco plants 
grew near the creek. Nicotiana suavcolens and probably also the 
larger N. excelsior with sheathing leaves that the natives chew as> 
a narcotic. A Didiscus (D. glaucifolius) was in flower, the head 
about the size of a shilling and quite showy. A clump of shrubs, 
of Santalum lanceolatum (?), in flowers and early fruit, grew 
near the bed on an island of soil. It differs from the South 
Australian S. lanceolatum. A small rock fern (Pleurosoriis rutae- 
folius) grew in a crevice. Numbers of a young Gnaphalhtm (G- 
luteoalbum) were coming up in the mud left by drying pools.. 
Here also a small Trlglochin was found. A few grasses grew in 
soil caught between the rocks. These comprised Themeda 
Forskali (Kangaroo Grass), Andropoyon cxaltahts with scented 
leaves and species of Eragrostis and Aristida. A bush of Cassia 
artcmisioides in bloom was a beautiful sight. A frickly Solamim 
growing amongst the stones had fine large pinkish-purple flowers. 



S.A. NAT., VOL. XI, 

May, 1930 . Visit to Yorketcwn. 39 

A FIELD NATURALIST'S VISIT TO YORKETOWN. 



Yorke's Peninsula forms part of the great mallee region of 
South Australia, so that, especially in autumn, there is very little 
variety in the botany to be seen on the journey to Yorketowtn. 
Speeding over the bitumen road to Port Wakefield, the mallee 
country comes in just north of the Gawler River, and mallee, 
with a few teatrees and peppermint, are practically the only 
trees seen. A few farmers have planted the sugar gum along- the 
fences. The best plantation we saw was made by harrowing 
alongside the fence, then dragging a fruiting branch of sugar gum 
along and finally firing the grass. Young trees have come up 
very freely and look healthy. One wonders why farmers do not 
try the olive, which should do well here. 

The Peninsula is very flat. In the southern part one cannot 
see any rise deserving the name of a hill, and the eye "roams far 
afield to discover any relief. A few trees are left along the roads 
and rare blocks of scrub remain here and there. In the middle 
of the Peninsula the road runs through the prosperous town of 
Maitland, centre of a most productive wheat area, and the driver 
points out the farm that brought £29/17/6 per acre! The fine 
modern residences scattered over the country testify to the fact 
that the farmers have done well. 

Nearing Yorketown, we begin to pass the salt lakes for which 
this part is famous. There are many scores, if not hundreds, of 
these lakes, though only a few are scraped for salt. There is so 
little relief that there are no streams, the rain when it does fall 
accumulating in hollows and forming swamps, marshes, and lakes. 
During the drier part of the year the water evaporates, in some 
cases leaving a more or less thick crust of salt covering the muddy 
flat bottom of the lake. Very small and shallow depressions are 
usually covered with the so-called ''samphire'' bushes {Arthrocnc- 
mum). The next stage is that of shallow lakes, into the surface of 
which the water sinks before forming salt. A final stage is that 
of the larger lakes where the bottom is quite flat, and where salt 
is deposited as the waters evaporate. Hundreds of thousands of 
tons have been collected and refined, but for many years the 
supply seemed to be inexhaustible. ()f late years there can 
be little doubt that the annual increment fails to keep pace with 
the amount scraped from the lakes. From any little elevation 
these lakes form a most picturesque feature of the landscape, with 
their snowy white expanses of salt. 



S.A. NAT., VOL. XI. 

40 Visit to Yorketown. May, I&3Q. 

The problem of the origin of the salt has been a matter of 
dispute, but much light has been thrown on the question by a. 
careful scientific research by Mr. R, Lockhart Jack, B.Sc, Deputy 
Government Geologist of S.A. The local theory is that there is- 
somewhere below the surface a great mass of salt from which 
the water obtains its supply, but Mr. Jack points out that the 
facts of the case render this highly improbable. 

There are no such lakes in the northern part of the Penin- 
sula for the reason that there is no sheet of impermeable clays 
to impound the waters and prevent them sinking. The southern 
part of the Peninsula is underlain by Permo-Carboniferous till 
very largely impermeable. This till was distributed over the 
land by the glaciers of the Permo-Carboniferous age (possibly 
200 million years ago). These glaciers were, of course, formed 
of fresh water Ice, and no large amount of salt Gould be entangled 
in the muds derived from the wearing down of these rocks by 
the ice. And even if this is admitted possible the salt would have 
gone into solution during the long ages since the period of distri- 
bution. The scientific theory is that of "Cyclic salts." It is well 
known that a certain amount of salt is blown off the ocean by 
the winds and tests made in many countries show that there is an 
appeciable amount of salt deposited on coastal lands everywhere. 
Examination of rain water tanks gave an amount of over one 
hundred weight of salt per acre per year. In the case of Yorke- 
town the amount was shown to be over [41 lbs. to the acre each 
year. In a wet climate this amount is returned to the sea by 
streams, but in an area of inland drainage the salt is drained into 
the hollows forming salt lakes. 

Another feature of great interest is the occurrence of gypsum 
deposits. The larger lakes have banks of more or less pure 
gypsum (sulphate of calcium) on the south or south-east edge 
of each lake. On Lake Fowler, the largest of the lakes, having 
a coast line of over 14 miles, the gypsum forms a long hill rising 
to 70 ft. high and extending along a mile a-nd quarter of the 
shore. The gypsum is practically pure, and is bagged and sent 
to the factories to make "Plaster of Paris/' etc. The explanation 
for this separation of the gypsum from the salt is that gypsum 
crystallizes more easily than salt. When in the hot summer a 
certain part of the water has been evaporated the gypsum be- 
comes so concentrated that it begins to crystallize out as feathery 
crystals on the surface of the water. The northerly winds of this 
season carry the crystals to the southern shore where they accu- 
mulate. But what a time it must have taken to pile up a minia- 
ture range of the mineral! 



■; 



V 



S.A. XAT., VOL. XI. 

May, 1930. gg H- 7 . Ham. 4 1 

On this lake a certain amount of scraping has been done 
this year, but the recent rains have probably ended this for the 
year, and the lake is now mainly covered with a thin sheet of 
water. On the northern side the geologist is interested to see the 
glacial till covered by modern travertine, and here, too, may be 
Been several great erratics, blocks of granite and of quartzite 
carried by the great glaciers of the bygone age probably from 
the far south of what is now the mainland of South Australia. 

In another way, too, the east coast provides interesting 
material for observation. At Klein's Point the Adelaide Cement 
Company has built a fine jetty (claimed to be the first one built 
wholly of cement in the world). Here a most complete plant has 
been established for the handling of large quantities of the poly- 
zoal limestone of which the cliffs are composed. A large electric 
generating plant supplies current to work the whole plant. The 
rock face, a mile long and about 60 feet high, is blasted down 
and a big electric shovel bites into it, taking a ton at a bite. 
Dumped into trucks it tipped into crackers which reduce the 
great blocks to handy sizes. These are then carried by belts to 
a hammer mill, by which they are broken to a fineness of less 
than five-eighths of an inch and carried by belts into great storage 
bins, from which other belts automatically carry the crushed rock 
to the end of the jetty where it rims into the waiting barge. Our 
visit was at a slack time, about 50 tons per hour were being 
collected from the face, crushed and delivered into the bins by 
a total force of eight men ! The Klein's Point Quarry was opened 
in October, 1 920. Over 500,000 tons of limestone have been 
taken out of the quarry the machinery of which can turn out 
approximately 500 tons daily crushed to quarter inch size. 

The rock supplied is a very pure limestone made up of the 
fossilised shells of tiny sea animals (mainly polyzoans ) of the 
Miocene age (possibly living in the shallow seas of 19 million years 
ago). Careful search reveals many fossils which establish the 
period of the deposition. 

W. Ham. 






42 



A Fresh Water Crayfish. 



a. nat., vol. xt. 
May, 1930. 



A REMARKABLE FRESH-WATER CRAYFISH. 

By HERBERT M. HALE 

(Curator, South Australian Museum) . 

Mr. A. J. Williamson, of Dunolly, Victoria, recently sent me 
for examination a curiously abnormal Yabbie {Parachaeraps 
bicarinatus) from his State. Unfortunately the specimen, a male, 
is dried, and the internal parts have been largely destroyed. The 
exoskeleton, which is practically intact, is remarkable in that the 
lateral parts of the carapace, posterior to the cervical groove, are 
raised to form a conspicuous elevation on each side, while at the 
summit of each elevation is a comparatively large aperture (with 
a thickening ciliate margin) leading to the branchial chamber. 
The rims of the apertures resemble the crassate inferior edge of 
the branchiostegites, while the fringing" hairs also are similar to 
those on the lower margin of the gill-cover, and not to the longer 
hairs on the inner face of the latter. The opening on the right is 
more slit-like than that of the left side; the apertures are other- 
wise dissimilar, for the rim of the left one is completed by a 
ciliate lappet (text fig. 1). 



;.\'y 





Fig. t on (A) left and (B) right side of carapace. 
Dorsolateral view of openings. 



Plate 111. 



A. NAT., VOL. XJ. 









Fisr. 2. Fresh-water Crayfish. 



Dorsal and lateral views, showing openings. 



A. NAT., VOL. XT, 



Plate IV. 




Photo— J. B. CI eland. 
Palm Valley, Central Australia. 




Photo— J. B. Ckland. 
Palm Valley, Central Australia. 






S.A. NAT., VOL. XI. 

May, 1930. By Herbert M. Hale . 43 

Comparison with normal individuals shows that the chelae 
(of which the left is larger than the right) are more slender than 
is usual, and the fingers, particularly the dactyli, are narrower; 
also, the abdomen is quite markedly roof-shaped, but this may 
be in part due to drying. 

It is evident that the inhalant currents, which normally flow 
into the gill-chambers only between the bases of the legs and the 
lower edge of the carapace, would in this specimen pass in through 
these dorso-lateral openings as well. 

It seems rather improbable that this individual is a mutant, 
but if it be a "sport" its occurrence is of considerable interest; 
the animal can have suffered no severe inconvenience through its 
abnormality — in fact it is reasonable to suppose that under certain 
circumstances the additional inhalant apertures might be advan- 
tageous rather than otherwise. 

The abnormalities in the exoskeleton may, of course, have 
developed during the life of the creature. The almost sym- 
metrically placed apertures were possibly primarily due to injury 
(such as might conceivably be inflicted by the beak of a bird). 
In this case water would doubtless enter the gill-chambers through 
these dorsal openings as well as inferiorly, and this may have 
resulted in their persistence and the development of "straining" 
marginal hairs and an incrassate margin. 

My best thanks are due to Mr. Williamson for the oppor- 
tunity of examining this interesting crayfish. 



THE CINEMATOGRAPH OF LIFE, 



Throughout the seasons of the year the Field Naturalists in 
their excursions to beach or hillside, by winding streams or 
whispering forest, are witnesses to the moving scenes of Life's 
great spectacle. On the world's broad stage a continuous drama 
is beinf? enacted. Without fall of the curtain scene has followed 

o 

scene since life began. In spite of its spaciousness the stage is 
always crowded. Everywhere we see repetitions of the same 
episodes and situations on different scales. Here a scene among 
the birds and there among the insects. What the mammals are 
acting is being caricatured by the amphibians. Nor are the actors 
altogether silent. As in the latest mechanical spectacle sound 
sychronises with movement. The bee's quest of honey is accom- 
panied by the drowsy hum and the assaults of the mosquito are 
heralded by her dreary monotone. The graceful evolutions of 



S.A, XAT., VOL. XT. 

44 The Cinematograph of Life. May, 1930. 

the bird are timed to the thrilling love song. It is a world of 
echoes and refrains. ■ The actors and actresses always appear 
artistic in their proper setting and scenery. Some are on the 
boards for minutes, some for days like the adult and aerial phases 
of scrub flies or ephemerids. Some for weeks, like the house flies 
or mosquitoes, some for months like the humble bees, some for 
years like the wedge-tailed eagle, the cockatoo, the swallow and 
many other birds, some for centuries like the eucalypts or the 
redwoods of California, but all in the end succumb to the scythe 
of the Great Reaper. So automatic is the succession among the 
short lived creatures that no gap is ever apparent. There is 
always an understudy to fill a vacant place. 

When, however, we lengthen our vision scientifically we see 
that in spite of the apparent sameness there is continual change 
and that one cast follows another as age succeeds age. Many 
great actors like the sea scorpions, the giant saurians, the flying 
dragons, the diprotodons, have made their final exit and have 
left no successors. Nor has their mantle fallen on any other. 
The play goes on, but the players change. Throughout the age- 
long drama known as "Evolution" nothing must be new, and yet 
paradoxical as it may seem, all must be new. Everything in the 
present is linked to the past and grows out of what has gone 
before. Just as Shakespeare developed his wonderful plays from 
the prosy tales of Holinshed, the "Parallels''' of Plutarch and 
other sources, and other sources, but in so doing entirely trans- 
formed the original so Nature in her eternal drama has steadily 
evolved characters and situations from apparently primeval con- 
fusion. Yet there is nothing in the end that was not potentially 
in the beginning, although the original may have been profoundly 
modified. All must be new or it would not be a drama, and 
would not be life if it were static. Beyond doubt the most im- 
pressive fact about animate nature is the " Ascent of Life," 
though there have been many backslidings and disappearances. 
Life has gone marching on from step to step. It is a well estab- 
lished fact that nobler and finer forms have appeared on the 
world's stage as one geological period has followed another. 

D. 1. McXamara. 



S.A. .VAT.. VOL. XT. 

May, 1930. Botanical Motes— B. H. Ising. 45 



BOTANICAL NOTES 

By ERNEST H. ISING. 



Daviesia corymbosa, Smith (Leguminosae). The reticula- 
tion of the veins on the leaves is different on the top and bottom 
surfaces. By holding the leaves up to the light this is easily 
observed and the veins can be seen crossing one another. The 
leaves also have longitudinal furrows on both surfaces which may- 
correspond to the space between the veins. 

Pultenaea daphnoides, Wendl. (Leguminosae) . On the 
upper surface of the leaf there are some fine white appressed 
hairs on the midrib. Commencing at the lower half they a-re 
sparse, but become more numerous as they reach the petiole, 
which is also somewhat hairy all round. The under surface also 
has very scattered hairs on the midrib as well as on the blade. 

TretratJicca pilosa (Tremandraceae ). In a previous article (l) 
I referred to this species (under T. ericifolia) growing from some 
exposed roots in a cutting. On 18/4/30, at Mount Lofty, I ob- 
served another instance of this species growing from some dis- 
turbed roots on the bank of an old road. There are four plants 
growing in the cutting, one each at 15, 19, 26 and 29 inches below 
ground level from roots more or less exposed. The plants consist 
of shoots 6 to 12 inches in length, and each has several branches 
in the cluster. These exposed roots, if they belong to the plant 
growing on the edge of the cutting, are at least 29 inches long. 
The lowest root is about 3 mm thick, and evidently descends even 
further into the soil. This shows to wdiat a great depth even 
small plants send their roots to obtain the necessary moisture. 

Coodenia geniculatd (Goodeniaceae). A plant was observed 
at Mount Lofty flowering on 18/4/30. Flowering w r as stimulated 
by a light rain of about 30 points several weeks earlier. This 
species flowers from November through all the heat of summer 
and into the autumn, its bright yellow flowers making an attrac- 
tive sight in the forest which is, at this time of the year, mostly 
devoid of flowers. 

Eucalyptus leu coxy Ion, F.v.M. (Myrtaceae). This species 
was flowering at Belair on 21/5/28, and there appeared to be a 
general flowering of these trees along an ironstone ridge near the 
railway lint'. It was also in flower at Blackwood on 3/7/28. As 
Black's "Flora" does not give the flowering times for this genus, 
•it is interesting to record this for the genus in the various districts. 



(1) This Journal,, Vol. IV., No. 4 (1923), p. 142. 



S.A. 2TAT., VOL. XI. 

46 Botanical Notes. __ May, 19 30. 

Acrotriche serrulata, Labill (Epacridaceae). This is an early 
flowering species, and flowers were observed on 1/7/28 at Mount 
Lofty and again on 11/8/29. On the latter date the plant pro- 
duced its first .flowers, as all except one cluster were in bud. 
Another plant was in full flower on 15/9/29 at Aldgate. On 
17/4/29 new growth was developing at tips of branches. 

Haleocharis acuta, R.Br. (Cyperaceae). This rush is grow- 
ing below a permanent spring along the roadside near Craters. 
It grows from near the spring to 56 yards below it in the gutter 
downhill towards Stirling. At 18 yards from the spring to 26 
yards the rush is crowded out by other growth. The gutter in 
which this plant grows is always moist and full of vegetation, and 
there must be a large quantity of water soaking down this gutter 
below the surface all the year round. This is evident from the 
constant freshness of the growth and the damp condition of the 
soil. The rush flowered on 23/11/28 for about 2 months. In 
this situation it grows very densely and practically forms a closed 
community. It has underground horizontal stems, with the buds 
an inch or so below the surface. It grows from 12 to 18 inches 
in height. On 28/12/28 this rush had died down and 2 months 
later new growth had come up and was several inches high. The ^ 
spring and summer had been verv dry, for no rain had fallen 
from 6/16/28 to 15/1/29. On 16/3/29 the spring was almost 
dry. At this time the gutter was cleaned out by workmen and 
the rush was skimmed off with a shovel, but the roots were not 
disturbed. By 16/8/29 the rush had developed new shoots from 
9 to 12 inches in height, and two months later had grown up to 
20 inches and was in flower. 

Persoonia pimperina (Proteaceae). I noticed a cluster of 
buds apparently about to flower on 28/8/29, which must have 
developed 4 to 6 weeks earlier. This appears to be very early 
for buds to mature, as this species does not usually flower until 
early in January. The past unusually dry winter may have a 
direct influence on the flowering time. 

Pterostylis nana (Orchidaceae). This small greenhood orchid 
was growing and flowering very plentifully on road cuttings near 
Mount Lofty Station, in spite of a dry winter. On 8/9/29 many 
plants were growing on the steep side of a cutting, from the top 
to the bottom, a distance of about 5 feet. They were also grow- 
ing on a deep cutting near the Cross Roads, Mount Lofty, on 
the exposed rock face. These plants must have been dormant for 
several years, or they were seedling or young plants vegetating 
by tuberous expansion, as during the last 10 years they had not 
been seen previously although I had kept a close watch on the 
cutting. Growing as they are in this situation seems to point to 
their propagation by means of seed. 



S.A. NAT., VOL. XI. 

May, 1930. By Emesi II. I sing. 47 



REGENERATION OF NATIVE PLANTS AFTER 
BEING CUT DOWN. 



By Ernest H. Ising. 



On a part of the roadside that was cleared of vegetation in 
(he winter of 1928 (Tune to August) the following plants have 
grown again apparently from the root-stock or underground 
Stems of the old plants. (Date 17/8/29). 

1 . Persoonia juniperina. Several plants have grown and one 

was 12 inches in height. 

2. Banksia marglnata. A plant had grown up 6 inches. 

3. Lepidosperma lineare. In fairly young fruiting stage and 

leaves about 6 inches in length. On 20/7/29 the flower 
stems were fully developed and fruits appearing. Evi- 
dently flowers in May or June. 

4. Olcaria grandiflora. Very healthy growth on 12 or more 

branches, which were cut off at about ground level and 
were now 12 inches in height. A month or two later 
there were 4-0 branches, each with a terminal flower. 
The rough "pruning" to which this plant was subjected 
produced very vigorous new growth. 

5. Xanthorrhoea semiplana. New leaves haki grown and 

were 18 inches in length. 



STARTING TIME OF MEETINGS. 

Members are asked to note that the evening meetings will 
commence at 7.30 p.m. in the lower room. This will allow time 
for disposal of business so that at 8 p.m. the lectures can be 
commenced. 

EXHIBITS. 

Will members please endeavour to bring exhibits at all 
meetings, especially the one to be held in October. 



S.A. NAT.. VOL. XI. 

48 Lectures, May, 1930. 



NATIVE FLOWER SHOW. 

After some discussion, it was resolved that the Show be held 
again this year on the dates assigned in the programme, October 
10th and 11th. Don't forget Collecting Day, October 8th, at 
Mt. Compass. The members realize that in all probability the 
financial returns may not be so high as in former years, but that 
the value of the exhibition is in many ways so great that it is 
worth while going on with it. Its real success will depend upon 
the enthusiasm and hard work of the members themselves. In 
particular everyone is asked to bring exhibits relating to any 
branch of natural history. 

LECTURE ON "THE ARCHITECTURE OF INDIA." 

By R£V, i. H. ALLEN, HSc. 

March 18th, 1930. 

With the aid of slides the lecturer gave a vivid description 

of the notable works of Indian builders through the centuries 

interspersed with a great deal of information on the development 

of Indian life and customs. 

LECTURE ON "HONOLULU, CALIFORNIA." 

By DR. R. H. PULLK1XE, M.B., Ch.A'l. 
April 15th, 1930. 
Dr. Pulleine gave an interesting account of visits to Honolulu, 
California, and Arizona. Of particular interest were his descrip- 
tions and views of arid districts in the western United States, 
and of the peculiar plants found in such desert conditions, with 
their many adaptations enabling them to flourish with the 
minimum of water supply. 

LECTURE ON "A TRIP TO CAIRNS." 

By MR. A. J. MORISON. 
A feature of Mr. Morison's lecture was the wealth of beauti- 
ful slides by which the lecturer's interesting remarks were illus- 
trated. The audience was taken to Melbourne, Sydney, Towns- 
ville, and Cairns, and thence to the many places of interest in 
this tropic land of palms and sugar canes. 

EXCURSION TO GLENELG AQUARIUM. 

April 26th, 1930. 

A party visited the Glenelg Aquarium and were greatly in- 
terested in the various forms of marine life collected there 
EXCURSION TO MT. LOFTY. 
March 15th, 1930. 

Mr. A. J. Morison led a party of members to Mt. Lofty. 
The Flower Show was visited by members, who were greatly 
interested in the fine exhibition of hills plants. 



i tm 



.A. NAT,, VOL. XL 

May, 1930. Excursions. 49 



EXCURSION TO HALLETTS COVE. 

Dr. Fenner led the party and explained the physiographical 
features of the Cove, and by the aid of a map distributed to each 
visitor pointed out the points of special geological interest includ- 
ing Tate's Rock, the polished pavement at Black Point, and the 
fossiliferous Miocene limestone which runs across the Cove. Dr. 
Fenner was particularly interesting when dealing with the geolo- 
gical history of the Cove from early Cambrian times through the 
period of Pernio Carboniferous fluvio glacial action, the Miocene 
life now represented by a fossiliferous limestone, the deposit of 
Pleistocene mottled clays, the travertine lormation and recent soil 
formation. 

EXCURSION TO OUTER HARBOUR. 

The party, under the leadership of Mr. F. K. Godfrey, 
found such a rich harvest of shells on the bank at the north end 
of the harbour that they failed to notice the encroaching tide 
till they were surrounded and had to wade out. On Snowden's 
Beach specimens are found both of estuarine and open sea shells, 
and a good number of species was collected. 

Among the estuarine shells reference was made to Mono- 
donta obtusa, which in appearance resembles the common winkle. 
Modiolus inconstans has an almost transparent shell. The shells 
w from the open sea washed in bv strong tides into river mouths 
included Mitra Aitstralis, characteristic of this beach. Chlamys 
bifrons belonging to the family of the Pcctenidae, but unlike the 
ordinary pecten, the two valves being convex. Haliotis cyclo- 
bates (circular lobed sea ear) is often found attached to a Pinna 
or Razor Shell, and within the two valves of the latter a small 
Pea Crab is sometimes observed. This is not a parasite, but 
while enjoying the protection of the Pinna enjoys its meals in 
common. The Pinna is deficient in carbonate of lime, the usual 
shell-forming material, but its valves are formed of horny matter 
known as Chitin. It is generally found up-right in the sand, 
moored to the bottom by its byssus or fringe. Pyrene lincolnensis 
was another interesting rind. 

Nassariits victoriamts, a prettily marked red shell, and 
Conus anemone is another beautiful shell, and Murex triformis. 
Polynices conica is a carnivorous mollusc, which bores holes in 
other shells, generally the portion covering the vital organs. Bit- 
teum granarium is an open sea shell, generally much deformed 
by rock and waves before it readies the beach. In the sand the 
tracks made by the Atnpkidesma cuneata were pointed out and 
near the nodes several of these shells were unearthed. The 
egg nidus of Polyniees conica, a strap-like structure of fine grains 
of sand in which the eggs are deposited. Other shells found were 
Clanculus dunkeri (peculiar to Australia), Salinator, sp,, Coro- 
nella, pp., Siliquaria and the dainty Oliva aitstralis. 



S.A. NAT., VOL. XT. 

50 S.A. Shell Collectors' Club. May, 1930. 

SOUTH AUSTRALIAN SHELL COLLECTORS' CLUB. 



The attendance at the regular meetings on first and third 
Mondays is well maintained. 

Family Trochidae has been under review during the 
quarter. Many of these shells are amongst the most common 
found on our beaches, and a little trouble is worth while to be- 
come familiar with those which the young folk are most likely to 
pick up and ask questions about. 

Genus Cantliaridus may be summarised — pyramidal — -not 
having a depression at the centre of the base, which de- 
pression would be called an umbilicus — outside smooth, spirally 
sculptured — brilliantly iridescent within — colours generally bright 
and variegated. A'louth is less than half the length of the shell, 
longer than wide, egg-shaped. Columella, the upright pillar in 
the centre, toothed or notched near base. Shell is rather thin. 
Australian Seas the metropolis of this genus. 

Cantliaridus apiciuus (Menke). -Much variety in coloration. 
About four-fifths of inch in height. Base of the shell is flecked 
or blotched. Interior is violet. Port Willunga and farther south. 

C. bcllulus ( Dunker ) . A real gem and common on 
almost every local beach. Half-inch in height and a quarter-inch 
diameter. Base colour is brownish or greenish, with about 16 to 
18 reddish bands, narrow, some of which appear to be doubled. 
Between the bands are numerous nearly circular white lined 
figures. The spire of the shell is elevated, but not very slender. 
The outer lip appears folded or plaited within. 

C. conlcus (Gray). Solid appearance, elevated, conical. 
Pinkish or grey-white, with crimson apex and close dark red- 
brown stripes. Spire is straightly conical. Protoconch, that is, 
the first formed portion at the apex is bluntly conical ami is 
eroded as though the baby shell could not stand the weather. 
Outer lip thick and plaited within. Reddish iridescent within 
the mouth. Three-quarters inch in height, half-inch diameter. 
Very common on all local beaches. 

C. cximius (Perry). Common on beach at Port Noarlunga 
and farther south, not found on beaches nearer Adelaide. 
The ocean beaches produce the best specimens. Colours 
green and red with interior greenish sheen. The shell shows 
numerous narrow spiral bands which are not much coloured and 
are not prominent. Fairly solid looking and generally attractive. 
The shell is brilliantly iridescent beneath the outer coating. About 
t-J- inches in height by half-inch diameter. 



May, 1930. 
s.a, nat., vol. xi. 



S.A, Shell Collectors' Chtb. 



51 



C. fusciatus (Menke). Common most beaches. This shell 
is elongated, thin, polished and shining. Colour white, creamy, 
or pink, with spiral bands of pink, purplish-red, brown. Spire is 
elevated and slender. Apex is dark and acute. Whorls about 
nine, very slightly convex. Mouth smooth, whitish within. Outer 
lip thin, acute. Inner lip (near centre of base) narrowly reflexed. 
This shell is not iridescent. Ocean beaches yield the best speci- 
mens. Up to about -J inch high and \ inch diameter. 

C. irisodontes (O. & G.). Common all beaches. Any size 
up to three-fifths inch high by three-eights inch diameter. On 
almost every patch of shell sand little green shells of this species 
are present. Shell is small, but stout looking. Not very polished. 
Sculpture dense with several concentric, impressed lines on base. 
Colour greenish, with several whitish dotted spiral lines. Spire is 
but moderately elevated. Apex greenish-brown. Whorls about 
seven, slightly convex. Mouth greenish-white within. Outer lip 
not very sharp on the &dgc. Inner lip set with small teeth. 

C. pitlcherrimus (Wood). This shell may best be distin- 
guished from irisodontes by its distinct rosy lip encircling the 
mouth. Shells mostly green, some are reddish. Interior irides- 
ecnt. Common on local beaches. About J inch in height by 
} inch diameter. 

Genus Monodonta (Lamarck). Shells of this genus are 
shaped like a top, and have few whorls, which are spirally grooved 
and beaded. The lip is thickened internally and grooved. The 
sand at Outer Harbour is mainly this shell in abundance. Shell 
columella — the upright central pillar, is toothed. The name 
Monodonta signifies "one tooth." Operculum or trap 1 door is 
horny and, viewed through a lens, is many-whorled, that is, with 
many wreaths or turns. Monodonta is without the depression in 
the centre of the base which is styled the umbilicus. Mouth is 
rounded, but is angulated towards the centre of the base. 

Monodonta conauuerata (Wood), Prefers the less exposed 
crevices in rocks, very common at Marino, under stones between 
tide-marks. Has strong solid appearance and is pearly, with well- 
marked green lines parallel with the line of growth. Any size up 
to rather more than 14 inches height by 1 inch diameter. This 
is not common at Pt. Willunga. 

M. constricta ( Lamarck ) . The common winkle. Rocky 
■coasts exposed at low tide. It is good eating. About an inch in 
height and diameter. 



S.A- XAT„ VOL. XI- 

52 Presentation to Retiring Secretary May, 1930. 

M. Adelaidae (Phil). Smaller than "concamerata" and better 
sculptured, with greenish interior sheen. Fairly common certain 
local beaches, look for them on the shell sand patches. About 
\ inch high and nearly \ inch diameter. 

,1/. odontis ( Wood). More finely sculptured than "ade- 
laidae" and of similar size and outline. Many have well pro- 
nounced yellowish spots in lines, but this does 1 not always apply. 
Uncommon on several Gulf beaches. 

M, obiusa (Dillwyn). More acute and angulated than 
"constricta." Might be taken for young a constricta" but for its- 
zebra-like markings. About f inch high by -\ inch diameter. 
Look for this shell in life amongst the weeds: in the mud between 
the sand spit at the Outer Harbour and the shore line which leads 
up the Port Creek, on the same side of the stream. 

M. ntdis (Gray). In general appearance and size this is 
like "constricta," but on the base is a black patch, and the black 
line around the outer lip is unbroken — in "constricta" the line is 
broken in several places. Nearly i-J inches high by 1 inch dia- 
meter. On rocks, not so common as "constricta." 

The quarter's review also included the genera Cantharidella 
and Calliotrochus ; although these shells are not large they are 
full of interest to students, instancing: — - 

Calliotrochus Reed'x — named by Sir Jos. Verco after Mr. Wal- 
ter Reed, a member of this Section. This shell is found in shell 
sand at Corney Pt., Wardang Island (Kimber), Edithburgh, 
Holdfast Bay, Levens Beach. The type is 6.2 mm diameter by 3 
mm height. 

F. K. Godfrey, Hon. Secretary. 



PRESENTATION TO RETIRING SECRETARY. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Morison's lecture opportunity was- 
taken to make a presentation to Mr. E. H. Ising, who recently 
retired from the position of Hon. Secretary after 12 years of 
devoted service. 

In making the presentation the President, Mr. II. M. Hale, 
referred in felicitous terms to the deep debt of gratitude for the 
splendid services rendered to the Society by Mr. Ising during his 
long term of office. 

The remarks of the President were supported by Messrs. 
W. H. SeJway and W. Ham. 

The presentation took the form of a wallet of notes. 



The South Australian Naturalist 

The Journal of the Field Naturalists' jSzctvm of the Royal 
Society of South Australia and of w& South Australian 

AqUat ' Um ***■ OmTHOLOGKA 




VOL. XI 



No. 4. 



CONTENTS. 

Our Beautiful Southern Coast (By L. Reynolds) 53-60 

S.A. Aquarium Society 61-63 

Bush Fires and our Native Fauna and Flora (By J. M. Qeland, Ml).) 64 



Lectures 



65 



Visit to Museum 

Native Flower Show 

South Australian Shell Collectors' Club 

Excursions and Lectures 

— :o: — 



.... 66-67 

67 

68-71 

72 



The authors of papers are responsible for the facta 
recorded and opinions expressed. 

Address of the Section: G/o Boyal Society's Booms, Institute 
Building, North Terrace. Adelaide. 



Published Quarterly 



Single Copy-NINEPENCE 



Obtainable from Cole's Book Arcade, No. 14 Rundle Street* 

Adelaide. 



Fel.stead & Oinsby, Printers, Dclmout's Building, Anster Avenue, Adelaide. 



OFFICE-BEARERS, 1930-31 



Chairman: Mr. F. K. GODFREY. 

irmen: Messrs. E. II. ISING and A. J. MORISON. 

Sicretary: Mr. II. WOODLANDS. 

Treasurer: Mr. E. V. DIX. 

Magaune Secretary: Miss M. ROEGER. 

Pr*jJ Correspondent: Mr. D. J. McNAMARA. 

Librarian: Miss ROEGER. 

Cofnmittee: 

Officers named and P i. B. CLELAND, and Messrs. W. H. SELWAY, 

J. F. BAILEY, W. C. HACKETT, J. A. HOGAN, II. M. MALE, and Misses 

J. M. MURRAY and E. IRELAND. 

Fauna and Flora Protection Committee: 

Professor J. B. CLELAND. Dr. C. FENNER, Messrs. E. ASHBY, W. H. 

SELWAY, j. M. BLACK, J. Y. BAILEY, A. M. LEA, F. INGEL, W 

CHAMPION HACKETT, B. B. BECK, J. NEIL McGItP, J SUTTON 

W. J. KLMBER. and J. E. L. MACHELL. 

Auditors: Messrs. \V. D. REED, F.C.P.A., and A. J. MORISON 



Editor "South Australian Naturalist' 
Mr. WM. HAM, F.R.E.S. 




The 

South Australian Naturalist. 



Vol. XI 



y^Wr/qsEB.r/?,,'-,- 



No. 4. 



OUR BEAUTIFUL SOUTHERN COAST. 

A Record of 



Dajte Easter 'tramping Excursion 
Fleurieu Peninsula. 




&£I^^^:y\C 



Fleurieu Peninsula is that section of country stretching. 
between Cape Jervis and ending near Rosetta Head (the 
Bluff), Victor Harbour. This extreme Southern Peninsula is 
unfamiliar to the average person. Less familiar still is the 
rugged precipitous coast, intersected by steep gullies and 
ravines, sheltered coves and ocean beach. Throughout the 
ages, the free and mighty rollers from the far southern ocean 
have piled high the foam and spray along this rugged shore. 
Devoid of tracks or signs of habitation, this ever changing, 
coast offers much to artists, naturalists, and sportsmen, for 
the last named may hunt the kangaroo, or ply the line for the 
fish which abound along this coast. In the valleys, too, bird 
life is prevalent. 

With haversacks rammed with provisions — -bread, rice,. 
potatoes, and a dozen other lines, including sleeping kit and 
camera, we stepped away from Second Valley on the. Good 
Friday morn of last Easter. 

My companion, Ted, civil servant, and Y.M.C.A. Field 
Naturalist Secretary, wanted to forget office routine, and test 
the beauty of the Southern shore. His swag of forty pounds 
was found to weigh heavier on his shoulders than some of his 
office problems. Being much shorter and broader than my 
companion, with the advantage of having humped the same 
weight for eight days from Moana, via Cape Jervis to Victor 
Harbour on November last, I felt a greater degree of comfort 
than my handicapped pal. 

We passed the pretty little home of the late Henry Van 
Raalte picturesquely situated upon the hillside, of the Dela- 
mere Valley. 



S4- 



Our Beautiful Southern Coast 



s.a. nat., vol. xi. 
August, 1930. 



As we ticked off each of the thirteen miles separating" us 
from Cape Jervis, we stopped to investigate a very old, but 
distinctly charming- little Church of England, standing in an 
atmosphere of peace and indeed "afar from the madding 
crowd." From her elevation she looks down and watches over 
the hallowed spot surrounded by trees where her faithful 
departed are sleeping. A point of interest presented itself as 
we passed into the church. Near the entrance doors stood a 
font, and a tablet nearby indicated that this font had been 
presented to Archdeacon Moyes, and was over 200 years old, 
having served in a parish church in England. 

A winding hilly road brought us to Cape Jervis — our 
"hopping off" place. Here we obtained a good supply of fish 
■for tea and breakfast from a visiting fisherman. 

Lack of water at the lighthouse is the bugbear. Disappoint- 
ment awaits visitors if they have not been wise enough to 
bring supplies. At one time visitors could obtain any little 
common want from the kindly keepers of the light, but now 
the keepers are gone, their cottages demolished, and an 
automatic light now flashes nightly without man's help. 

The following morning (Saturday) we breakfasted, 
packed, and pushed away from the Cape, heading in a south- 
easterly direction. 

Beyond an old homestead of J. Malthouse, near the sea, 
stood the new cable station. The old station at Yankalilla 
carried the cable to Kangaroo Island, but from this new 
position the cable distance is shortened, being only 8 to 10 
miles across to the island. 

Fishery Creek (2 -J- miles from the Cape) has bad drinking 
water. Here at one time mining was pursued, but now just 
the slaggy clumps remain. 

From Fishery Creek to Campbell's Creek the contour of 
the coast changes. Short scrub appears, and from the sea the 
land slopes gently inland, meeting the hills and valleys, which 
become steeper as one moves eastward. Campbell's Creek is 
one of the many sheltered sandy coves encountered after 
leaving the Cape country. An islet of rock stands guard at 
the sea entrance, while the surrounding hills dip-slope to the 
sandy beach which is a few hundreds of yards in length. From 
the valley between the hills, pure fresh water finds its way to 
the beach. In wet seasons the supply flows over the sand, but 
in a dry season, it filters beneath it. By scooping a hole in 
'the sand, one can intercept the stream and obtain excellent 
-drinking water. 



^ 



S.A. NAT., VOL. XT. 

August, 1930. By L. Re ynolds, $5_ 

Blowhole Creek (why thus named, 1 don't know) also con- 
tained abundance of fresh water. It was reached on Saturday 
afternoon, and by this time the coast was rapidly assuming 
proportions of scenic splendour. A prettier scene than that 

^ which now presented itself would be difficult to find. From 
a sand)' knoll I surveyed the sight before me, and just 
wondered how Nature from a continuity of rocky cliffs and 
rugged broken coastline should suddenly see fit to mould such 
.a snug little haven, a real shelter from the outside breakers 
and southerly squalls and winds. The cove entrance was 
guarded by storm-worn sentinels of high jagged rocks, follow- 
ing around and hemming in the cove. The rocks terminated 
in deliberate slopes to the beach. The hills to the east of the 
cove were broken by a rocky steep-sided valley, which frowned 
upon the little winding fresh water stream as it turned and 
twisted its way between rock and bushes, and presently 
flowed into the sea. Strange to relate, white lilies grew in 
profusion up this valley. Here the prospects were so inviting, 
we decided to camp. 

A fire was lighted in a sheltered spot on the beach, and 
sufficient wood and water secured for the night. It is most 
^ Interesting to observe the varying amounts of driftwood found 

along this coast. Bleached white with exposure, I have seen 
it piled high and dry the whole length of a sheltered cove, and 
sometimes three to four feet deep. Huge trunks of ancient 
trees rest along with timber and boxes lost or thrown over by 
ships at sea. As night descended, two fine leather jackets were 
placed on a flat stone to sizzle before the fire— a good method 
of cooking fish, no pots or pans! When cooked, peel off the 
skin or scales, and "Goodbye, Fish !" Ted scratched around 
for seaweed, and soon reported beds made. Shielding my 
face from the heat of the fire, I plunged a fork into the fish 
and dragged them to the festive scene. At about 10 p.m. that 
■evening a big mail boat hove into sight ablaze with electric 
lights. Although she appeared quite near, over three miles 
must have separated her from the mainland. 

The following morning was dark and threatening. Half- 
way through breakfast down came the rain, and continued for 
some hours. Beneath the canvas we dismally watched the 
rain falling whilst the fire spluttered and eventually fizzled 
out. The tin plates which were thrown on to the sand were 
now filled with water. At 11 a.m. the rain ceased, the clouds 
rolled away, and the warmth and cheer of the sun poured 
upon us. We hastily packed and moved away down the coast 






S.A. NAT., VO XL 

56 Our Beautiful Southern Coast. August, 1930 

Directly south were two islands. They appeared to be some 
miles from shore, but were recognised as The Pages — North 
and South Page (70 feet high). Travelling now becomes- 
slower and more difficult. Valleys are steeper, hills higher, 
and dense scrub appears. Mr. Madigan, in his report before 
the Royal Society, refers to this section of the coast as "A 
succession of rocky bluffs, small shingly coves, and the ridges 
between the gullies reaching from 200 to 300 feet high." He 
continues by stating the going to be difficult and tiring, and in 
one day from 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. only six miles were covered. 

The approach to Deep Creek was lined with dense scrub. 
Shorter scrubs grew on the hilltops, but the descent into the 
valleys was checked by high scrub reaching over our heads. 
One had to force one's way through this dense growth. 

The needle bush (Hakea rugosa) kept us well awake. It 
is covered with sharp needles one inch long. 

The silky teatree (Leptospermum pubescens) welcomed 
us more kindly as we tramped through its territory. A few 
members of the daisy bush family seemed to be well repre- 
sented and widespread along the Peninsula. 

Near Porpoise Head a little surprise awaited us. We had 
just emerged from a particularly steep and rocky valley,, 
puffing and blowing like a pair of mountain-type engines. A 
fine panorama lay before us, and also another view, but not so 
pleasant as the former. In the grass ahead, at full length, lay 
a five foot snake. While he wondered who and what we were, 
I also pondered the question as to why he should choose to be- 
directly across our track, and what the result might have been 
had one of us stepped on him. Keeping an eye on him, I 
slipped the haversack to the ground, but he anticipated my 
move, and quickly glided away. One, two, three, and the 
fourth bush proved fatal to him. I broke his back as he 
emerged and after a few sundry taps for luck, he was pre- 
sented before the camera. We displayed a sudden interest 
in ground study for the next few miles — maybe the thoughts 
of meeting the relatives of our late friend were responsible 
for this. 



:S.A. WAT., VOL. x: 
August, 1930. 



By L. Reynolds, 



S7 



PART II. 

The coast continued steep and rocky, and from every 
vantage point, one saw scenes of varying coastal splendour. 
Every mile revealed something new; miniature coves and 
inlets were sheltered by sheer walls of rocks, whilst deep 
down one became fascinated with the rise and fall of the 
swell, causing a gurgling stifling noise as it receded, leaving 
.a struggling surging backwash to follow in its wake. Many 
beautiful views were unravelled as we lessened the distance 
to our objective — Deep Creek. By now the sun was dropping 
away to the west. At intervals, as we gained the hilltops, 
Ave observed its rays grow less, whilst down in the valley, 
the shades of night were gathering. In a neighbouring 
valley, we heard welcome sounds of the surf playing on the 
rocks outside Deep Creek. 

Ten minutes later, torch in hand, we stood on the top of 
a particularly high and steep valley, which surrounds and 
overlooks and gives to this creek the name of "The Deep 
Creek." Aided by torchlight, we descended from the hilltop 
down the valley to a sheltered sandy cove beneath. The 
valley darkness had completely enveloped us; although not 
able to see, vv*e could plainly hear the boom of the rollers 
outside crashing on the precipitous cliff rocks. With the 
■crash of each roller a silvery serpentine stream wound its 
way over sands and rocks into the sheltered creek, and 
mingled its salt with the fresh water. P>ut thanks to Nature, 
the might and volume of the sea was kept outside shelter 
cove. Directly above, the stars were contesting with the 
clouds for the supremacy of the night. At intervals, they 
were obscured by the dark clouds, which were driven by the 
same wind that caused the trees and shrubs growing high on 
the valley tops above to sing and whistle a mournful welcome 
to a tired pair gazing from the valley below, where silence 
and peace prevailed and contrasted strangely with the ele- 
ments outside and above. 

Here we were to camp for the night. To an observer 
from the valley heights, our campfire would appear no 
brighter than one of the stars above, but to us it was a 
cheerful blaze. High seas had washed seaweed and sand 
into the creek, and the decaying vegetation polluted the 
water. Although temporarily disappointed we found suitable 
water for boiling, and with the failing torchlight we hastily 
gathered our supply of firewood for the night. It was a 
tired, but contented pair of tramps who dried their clothes 
and camped "by the fire that night. 



S.jU NAT., VOL. XI- 

58 Our Beaut lj id Southern Coast. Aucust, 1930. 

"The camera worked overtime on the following morning 
(Monday) depicting scenes inside the valley and outside by 
the ocean. It is difficult to paint a word picture of a coast so 
beautiful. The best attempt is indeed poor, so I say one 
must sec for oneself "our charming Southern Coast," this, 
"rugged loveliness." As the sun penetrated the valley, we 
broke camp, and wound away up creek, searching for a 
convenient exit from this deep gorge. The little vale below 
was clothed with bracken fern, and along the creek and right 
into the gully the silky teatree grew. Beneath its shelter 
grew what every woman admires — -the delicate maiden-hair 
fern. To the right and left along the creek and afar into the 
hillside, maiden-hair flourished and grew in unpretentious 
profusion. I photographed a view looking through this fern 
valley to the Pages Islands in the distance. 

The most difficult part of the journey ended at Deep 
Creek, although the coast ahead was by no means easy. The 
cabbage or scrub gum (Eucalyptus cosmophylla and 
Eucalyptus fasciculosa) grew in the scrub a short distance 
from the cliff. Pleasant grassy patches were in evidence, and 
the country generally appeared more hospitable. A unique 
sight presently loomed up. From a point on the cliff face, a 
delightful panorama stretched 10 to 12 miles eastward, 
bringing within range the beautiful Tunkalilla Beach, Tunk 
Head and Newland Head. I had just recorded this scene by 
camera, when quite near us the Yacca or grass trees rustled,. 
and away hopped a pair of fine kangaroos, and made into the 
scrub. A few minutes later we surprised another big chap 
which had been feeding too intently to hear our approach, 
There are signs of the presence of numerous 'roos throughout 
this country. On one occasion we made a circuitous track 
through some scrub, when we came upon a large species of 
eagle, being the second one seen. From here to Tunkalilla 
Beach the Black Boy, Yacca or Grass Tree, grows in 
abundance. These old man trees are reputed to reach a great 
age, and from certain of their species, the Yacca Gum is 
extracted. 

At Tapanappa Creek Ave had lunch, and presently set oft 
for Tunkalilla Beach. Ted's eyes sparkled as we walked and' 
talked. I had told him great things concerning Tunkalilla 
Beach of the straight flat walk of 4 miles along a marvellous 
platform. It would be a welcome relief to us both, being the 
first flat section of country encountered since the start. 
Tunkalilla Beach is uniquely set out. It is a memorial' 
picture as seen from a hill looking eastward along the beach. 



S.A. NAT., VOL. XI. 

August, 1930. By L. Reynolds, 59 

In stormy weather the fury of the unbroken rollers spends 
its strength and spray along the four miles of this beach. 
During" these four miles, the tramper has the incessant drone 
and boom of the thunderous breakers ringing" in his ears, as 
each roller leaves the shore lacecl white with foam. Ten feet 
above beach level is a platform about 200 yards wide running 
the whole length of the beach. It is composed of alluvial soil 
washed down from the hills. The background,, a marginal 
line of steep hills, follows this platform to Tunkalilla Head, 
four miles away. Sheep graze along this plateau and about 
in the centre, is an old woolshed, where I believe the sheep' 
are still shorn. 

As a rule on this trip we are continually racing the sun- 
set, and this night was no exception. Callawonga Creek was 
the goal for the night. At the summit of Tunkalilla Head,, 
we had the pleasure of seeing the sun go down. In order to 
save time and skip a few hills, we made a detour into the 
scrub. This proved disastrous, and landed us into trouble 
Darkness rapidly descended, and after much blind walking 
and stumbling, we were reluctantly obliged to make camp 
where we stood, being temporarily bushed for the night. 

Under a few Yacca trees, we clumped the haversacks, 
and went away to gather firewood. With our arms full, we 
turned in the direction of the haversacks, but to our surprise 
and disgust, the darkness had made all Yacca trees appear 
the same. The firewood was dropped, and a good ten 
minutes search revealed the swags some distance beyond 
where we had been searching. Of course, it seemed humor- 
ous then, but we were not to be caught again. 

In the light of a regular bush-fire, we were much more 
at ease, but our good cheer fell a few degrees when the water 
bottle registered half-full and the contents had to be divided. 
The food supply looked very sick, so that also suffered' 
division. It was quite certain that if we had tea, nothing 
would be left for breakfast. AVe hoped to reach Victor the 
next day, and by that time something was bound to turn up. 

That night saw a very heavy dew fall, so we formed a 
human hob on each side of the fire, and with the inner man 
still demanding his rights, we did our best to sleep. 

The morning following being Tuesday, our last day, we 
were astir early. While the stars were yet shining, we 
warmed ourselves around the fire, and wondered what a 
decent breakfast would taste like. Not a remnant of food 
was in the tucker bag. After much diving into his bag, Ted 
reappeared with a little cocoa and coffee. I suggested that 



S.A. NAT., VOL. XI. 

n50 Our Beautiful Southern Coast, August, 1930. 



he should undertake another submarine excursion to the 
depths of his bag, in hopes of digging up something that 
would look or taste like sugar or milk, but by the expression 
on his face, 1 saw that he also realised our mutual dis- 
appointment. He handed me a little bag, the substance left 
from the wreck of our gloriously ladenecl swag of five days 
before. He grinned as I steered my nose into the bag. Salt! 
■Greet Scott, of all the unwelcome stuff in the world. Salt! 
For days we had seen oceans of it. Salt ! Certainly not. So 
in the light of dawn, we gulped down the world's worst com- 
bination — coffee and cocoa, minus milk and sugar. 

Callowonga, the evasive creek of the night past, was 
reached in the early morning. The creek had a good flow 
of fresh water, and somewhere inland Wolfram has been 
found. This valuable metal was used extensively during the 
war, adding properties of toughness to steel for armour plate 
and shell making. Beyond Callawonga appeared excellent 
grazing country, the grass seemed plentiful, and long. 
Bolloparudda and Coolawanga Creeks were crossed, showing 
Newland Head covered with a dark scrub. We skirted the 
scrub on Newland Head, and passed into the Waitpinga 
country. This country was inviting, and by the well kept 
fences, we judged that settlements were at hand. After mid- 
day we were feasting at a kindly settler's cottage, and this 
■welcome meal provided sufficient fuel to complete the remain- 
ing 8 miles journey, arriving at Victor Harbour the same 
Tuesday afternoon, having completed forty to fifty miles of 
■ocean coast. 

This State possesses an almost unknown rugged coastal 
gem unspoiled and unpolished by the ways of man. To those 
who are lovers of natural scenery, to botanist and marine 
scape admirers, to camera enthusiasts, and to the army of the 
young and active, and all those who long for the unbeaten 
ways, I commend this trip, that they too may see and 
appreciate our Southern heritage. 



S.A. NAT.. VOL. XI. 

August, 1930. S./l. Aquarium Society, 61 

S.A. AQUARIUM SOCIETY. 

A meeting of the above society was held on July 1st, when 
Mr. H. M. Hale presided over a large attendance of members and 
visitors. 

Mr. A. Ci. Kdquist delivered an instructive address on 
"Nutrition in Relation to Aquatic Animals.' 7 The lecturer ex- 
plained that all living organisms require food to sustain life, lack 
of suitable food ultimately resulting in death. All living sub- 
stance breathes, and in the process uses oxygen, liberating carbon 
dioxide. The carbon of the carbon dioxide formed during respira- 
tion is derived from waste tissues of the body and such waste has 
its origin in food, so that in order to maintain life an organism 
must ingest as much carbon as it loses in the process of breathing. 
From this we see that carbon or charcoal is a most important food, 
and that as a result of breathing it is oxidized or slowly burnt by 
combustion. The process of combustion produces heat which 
maintains the temperature of the body, and thorough oxidation of 
the body is as necessary to growth as is an abundance of food 
material. 

Analyses of Body Substance. 

Analyses of the body substance of fish reveal the following 
facts: Water, 10.8 per cent.; Carbohydrates, — per cent.; Protein, 
44.1 per cent.; Fat, 10.3 per cent, of a digestible nature, and 
minerals such as lime, silica, soda, iron, magnesia, phosphorus, 
sulphur, manganese, iodine, fluorine, etc. The absence of any 
one of these substances means a cessation of growth and probably 
breakdown in the health of the organism by food deficiency 
diseases. All living organisms consist of water, carbon, nitrogen, 
and minerals, hence it is clear that success is only attainable to 
the aquarlst by careful selection of foods containing the substances 
mentioned, and those substances must be given in correct propor- 
tions. In other words the food must represent a properly balanced 
ration. By this we mean- that the carbon must bear a definite 
ratio to the nitrogen and the minerals. The ratio of the proteins 
to the carbohydrates is 44.1: 23.2. 

Constitution of Foods. 

Solid foods are divided into groups according to their chemi- 
cai composition and the part they play in the economy of the 
organism. 

Carbohydrates. 

Typical examples of carbohydrates are sugar and starch. 
Sugar consists of carbon plus oxygen and hydrogen in the pro- 
portion in which they exist in water, i.e., two parts hydrogen 
combined with one part of oxygen. (C 12 H L >2 Cii) or 
(C12 Ho* Oj2). Other carbohydrates are cellulose, glucose,, 
dextrine, maltose, caramel, etc. 



S,A. NAT., VOL. XI. 

S.J. Aquarium Society, August. 1930. 



Fats and Oils. 

Another group of substances, very like carbohydrates in 
composition, contains the fats and oils. In these compounds the 
oxygen and hydrogen do not always exist in the proportions 
found in water. They may be looked upon as concentrated 
carbohydrates. In this group we have lard, suet, tallow, butter, 
olive oil, linseed oil, fish oil, cocoanut oil, cottonseed oil, and 
margarine. Some of these fats are of a very complex nature, 
butter for instance containing stearine, clein, palmatin, butyrin, 
myristin, caprin, caprylin, caproin, and laurin. 

Proteins. 

Proteins are more complex in composition than carbo- 
hydrates, having in addition to carbon and the elements of water, 
nitrogen, and mineral salts, including phosphorus and sulphur. 
In this class of foods we have gluten, legumin, albumin, casein, 
globulin, myosin, fibrin, etc. 

Fun'ction of Foodstuffs. 

Food is necessary to maintain the body and to produce a 
growth of body tissues. The carbohydrates and fats supply 
bodily heat and heat energy which exertion requires. The heat 
■energy is derived from the oxidation of carbon in the carbo- 
hydrates and fats, any carbohydrate ingested and not oxidized 
being stored up as fat between the muscles and around the 
kidneys, nerves, liver, etc., in the form of animal starch named 
glycogen. Too much carbohydrates is detrimental to general 
health and the so-called lower animals, in their natural state, 
choose a correctly balanced diet. Man, with his superior know- 
ledge, gorges geese with food rich in carbohydrates and eats the 
livers in the form of pate-de-foie-gras , which is considered a 
great delicacy in France and other countries of advanced civilisa- 
tion. The temperature of fish is that of the water in which they 
live, hence they are classed as cold-blooded animals, so that they 
do not require heating foods as do birds with a body temperature 
of 103 to 108 degrees Fah. For this reason it is inadvisable to 
provide fish with a diet consisting of breadcrumbs, oatmeal and 
suchlike farinaceous foods. Fishes should have a diet very rich 
in proteins, a ration of about 1 of carbohydrates to 4 of proteins 
being ideal, although a ration as narrow as 1 to 3 would not be 
harmful. Proteins, on account of the carbon content, maintain 
bodily heat, but they do more than this. The nitrogen and 
minerals contained, particularly the phosphorus and sulphur, 
build up flesh, bone, blood, nerve, brain, scales, and the elements 
of reproduction. 



S.A. NAT.. VOL. XI. 




Cape jervois, showing Lighthouse, 



* 




Campbell's Creek, slunuing Island. 



S.A. NAT,, VOL. Si 




Coastal scene between Blowhole and Deep Creek 




Scrub and Grass Trees near Deep Creek. 



S.A. NAT., VOL. XI, 

August, 1930. S.J. Aquarium Sueifity. 63 

Minerals. 

Minerals are necessary in the building up of bone, scales, 
blood and reproductive organs. Without these fish may live for 
quite lengthy periods, but growth is impossible. Lack of minerals 
leads to lack of stamina and resistance to disease, and fish so fed 
are very susceptible to fungoid diseases. Such minerals must be 
ingested with the food, it being useless to add soluble minerals 
to the water excepting for its beneficial effect on plant life. 
Nature provides foods rich in proteins and minerals in the form of 
small aquatic creatures such as daph?iia, cyclops, estheria, cypris. 
branchipus, and other crustaceans, while for small fry such 
organisms as amoeba, vorticella, volvox, diatoms, protococcus, 
euglaena, paramoecium, larvae of mosquito and chironomous are 
particularly good. 

Methods of Feeding. 

Feed regularly, and give little at a time. Provide living 
food as much as possible, this is rich in vitamines. Never allow 
food to lie in the tank after the fish have satisfied their hunger, 
such debris rapidly giving rise to bacterial action with dire 
results. Weed eating fish get their minerals from the plants, and 
in standing water these minerals are soon depleted, so that 
soluble minerals should be added from time to time to counter- 
balance the loss. Minute animal life is also attached to the 
weeds eaten and is of course highly beneficial. Plant life becomes 
very scanty and attenuated when minerals become depleted. 

Conclusion. 

Living tissues are always preferable to dead matter as food 
for fish. Such food (living) contains substances which undergo 
chemical changes immediately the protoplasm in the tissues dies. 
In a battery of wooden tubs or ponds small animal life such as 
that enumerated above may be successfully bred for the use of 
aquarists in feeding their pets. 



OUR EXCHANGES. 

1. "Annals of the National Zoological Museum of Poland." Four Numbers. 

2. ''The Australian Forestry Journal." June, 1930. 

3. The Annual Report of the John Crerar Library, Chicago. 1930. 

4. "The W.A. Naturalists' Cub Magazine. May, 1930. 



S.A XAT., VOL. XI 

M- Busk Fires and Our Native Fauna and Flora. August, 1930 



BUSH FIRES AND OUR NATIVE FAUNA AND 

FLORA. 

By j. B. Clklaxd, M.D. 

In Nature for May 24, 1930, page 783, Dr. G. P. Bidder, 
under the title of "The Importance of Cataclysms in Nature/* 
points out that from time to time, at intervals of perhaps 
hundreds or even thousands of years, great catastrophes may 
occur which may overwhelm living things with the exception of 
only a few individuals which differ from their fellows in possessing 
some factor which has proved of survival value under these ex- 
ceptional conditions. The survivors would tend to transmit to 
their descendants this fortunate factor even though it might never 
again be operative in saving the species from destruction. The 
species after the ordeal would differ in certain features from its 
ancestors. It would constitute a variety on the road to the 
establishment of a neAV species. As examples of such cataclysms, 
prolonged drought, flood and fire arc given. To these might be 
added for Australia the effects on our native fauna and flora of 
exotic introductions such as rabbits, foxes, cattle, sheep and 
noxious weeds. The object of this note is to call attention to the 
author's references to the the effects of fire in Australia. He 
says: — "I am told that in Australia, the first sign of a fire in the 
forest is the escape of the winged things — birds and insects. 
This gives another reason for delicate olfactory organs in insects, 
equally cogent with sex and food. In Australia every tree and 
bush is burned, and nothing remains but hot ashes — through 
which the seedling eucalypti rise to refill the long swath in the 
forest." 



May I suggest that the Field Naturalists' Section should make 
a study of the effects of fire in our Alt. Lofty Ranges? Is Dr. 
Bidder correct In his statement that the first sign of a forest fire 
is the escape by flight of birds and insects? It is certainly not 
the case that every tree and bush is burned so that hot ashes 
alone remain. Most of our eucaipyts are lire resistant, even 
though they may be severely scorched. Sprouting occurs 
abundantly from the main trunk and larger branches. Many of 
the undershrubs have resistant butts. But do we know suffi- 
ciently well what species do survive and how they are able to do 
so and which are those that first appear as seedlings and how 
the order changes and other species appear as the eucalypt forest 
or scrub gradually returns to the normal: It would surely be of 
considerable interest for our members to collect this information 
and publish it in The South Australian Naturalist- 



s.a. nat., vol. xl 
August, 1930. 



Lectures. 



65 



LECTURE: 'THE PHENOMENA OF THE ATMOSPHERE." 

By Mr. A. G. Edouist. June 17, 1930. 

Mr. Edqulst dealt in a very interesting way with the ocean 
of air round the earth. By the help of a fine collection of lantern 
slides he made the whole subject one of very great interest. 



: o 



LECTURE: "THE ASSOCIATION OF INSECTS WITH 

PLANTS." By Dr. J. Davidson, D.Sc. July 15, 1930 

The lecture proved most instructive. The lecturer stated 
that insects develop in a natural area in association with climate 
and flora, the latter being affected by geological formation and 
soil conditions. With the development of virgin country for 
agriculture the balance of insect life is disturbed, owing to change 
in flora, large areas of one crop being grown. Some native insects 
may take to feeding on the cultivated plants and may become 
pests ; some insects may be introduced into the area from other 
countries and similarly become pests in the cultivated plants. 

Insects in their relation to plants are of two classes: (a) 
biting or chewing, like caterpillars, bettles, locusts and grass- 
hoppers; (b) sucking, such as aphides, scale insects, and 
plant bugs. The large orders of insects like butterflies and moths, 
beetles, flies, exhibit a very wide range of habit in relation to the 
Food plant — some eat the leaves or young shoots or bore in the 
stem, many of them in the young larval stage bore in the wood, 
■mine the leaves, destroy the buds or blossoms and fruit. 

The sucking insects in addition to causing serious damage to 
the plants on which they live by destroying the leaves or fruit 
are important in that several species have been shown to be able 
to transmit diseases of plants known as "virus diseases." 

The manner in which insects find the correct food-plant is 
not yet fully understood — they are attracted to the plant for food 
and for the purpose of laying eggs. 

The association of insects with plants has an important 
economic side in that certain insects may prove to be useful in 
keeping down noxious weeds. The work on the control of Prickly 
Pear in this way is well known— certain insects are associated 
with furze or gorse, blackberry and ragwort and they do great 
damage to these plants. 



S.A. KAT.j VOL. XX, 
66 Excursions. August. 1930. 

VISIT TO MUSEUM: JULY 26, 1930. 



Members were received by the Curator (Mr. H. M. Hale) 
and first viewed the recent acquisitions of the Museum. These 
included a Conger Eel found in S.A. waters. A most interesting 
exhibit was made of material unearthed by Messrs. Hale and 
Tindale on the Murray, below Swan Reach. The exhibits in- 
cluded certain human bones in a semi-fossilised condition. Other 
finds were numbers of chipped stone implements and implements 
of bone. Four different culture phases are represented. Shells- 
of different ages were also found as well as many bones of the 
animals used as food by the aborigines of long past ages. These 
included some bones of the Tasmanian Devil, long extinct on the* 
mainland. Aboriginal weapons and articles fabricated mainly by 
the lubras of the tribes formed an exhibit of great interest. 
Among many exhibits were some flimsy-looking rafts of reeds> 
on which the dark man ventured to navigate the Murray. 

Mr. Lea, the Museum Entomologist, exhibited a great num- ^ 
ber of specimens, including the Cactoblastis cactorum, the insect 
that is doing such fine work in destroying the pest pear of 
Queensland and Northern New South Wales. Over 35 million 
acres of land have been so densely covered by this prickly pest 
that they were rendered useless. After years of world-wide re- 
search an insect has been found which attacks the pear. Photo- 
graphs showed that the insect is destroying the cactus over large 
areas, Mr. Lea also showed specimens of the parasite which he 
was the means of introducing into Fiji to attacking an insect pest 
which was destroying the cocoanuts. 

In showing an immensely varied collection of spiders, Mr. 
Lea said that brightly coloured spiders were usually venomous. 

In the basements the ravages of. the white ants or termites 
had been led to the employment of "steel" cabinets for the pro- 
tection of the valuable collections. These destructive insects 
penetrated the cement floors. 

The Kea, with a long hooked beak, formerly lived mainly 
on honey obtained from the nectar of flowers. The advent of 
the white man led to a remarkable change in its dietary. From 



S.A. NAT.. VOL. XT, 

August, 1930. Excursions. ^7 



drinking the blood from slaughtered carcases the bird took to 
attacking the living animal, especially seeking the fat around the 
kidneys. The Kaka, a closely allied species, is, however, content 
W with honey. The Kiwis nostrils are seen at the end of the beak, 

and its egg is of abnormal size for a bird not much larger than 
a pigeon — the egg being equal almost to an emu's. 

Among the handiwork of the Murray Blacks the cat's cradle 
of childhood is a favourite product with some mysterious 
meaning. This simple but peculiar device prevails among the 
children of nearly all races, but the origin and meaning is hidden: 
in prehistoric antiquity. A flimsy raft of reeds is still used by 
our natives in fishing on the lakes. It is ingeniously made and 
buoyant in spite of its slight appearance. Well constructed hand 
baskets made of rushes occupy the spare time of the lubra's. 
They exhibit very clever workmanship and design. In the 
armoury were more than 2,000 spears, all barbed, .some singly 
and some doubly, with barbed heads of flint or bone; those 
with spines being considered especially deadly. 

Rings with red feathers outside and white .pigeon in the 
W inner ring came from Santa Cruz. One of these would purchase- , 
two wives or one pig. 



NATIVE FLOWER SHOW. 



The Sub-Committees are busy planning for the Show to be- 
held on October 10th and 11th. Members generally are desirous 
of making this Show as wide and varied as possible. Members, 
are asked to send in every sort of natural history exhibit they 
think would be of interest to nature lovers. Timbers, plants, 
insects, shells, curios of all kinds, anything you think would prove 
of interest, bring them along. 



S.A. NAT., VOL. XI. 
68 Jffld Flower Show. August. 1930. 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN SHELL COLLECTORS' CLUB. 

1st August, 1930. 



The interest of the members is well maintained, and the 
meetings have been well attended. 

The Chairman (Mr. W. J. Kimber) continued his review of 
Family Trochidae : — 

Genus Cailiostoma (Swainson). Shells conical, without de- 
pression at the centre of the base (umbilicus); largest or body 
whorl angulated and usually ribbed at its periphery or circum- 
ference; mouth somewhat squarish; columella or central pillar 
oblique, often ending in a notch or tooth at the basal front. 

C. meyeri (Philippi). A vertical section would appear al- 
most as an equilateral triangle. The shell is rather solid, pearly, 
also closely and conspicuously beaded in spiral lines from the 
apex to the base; the fifth spiral constituting the suture or line 
which separates the whorls, is more coarsely beaded than the rest. 
Colour is pinkish-red, regularly blotched with red. There are 
numerous impressed concentric lines on the base. Height one 
inch. Greatest diameter is slightly larger as 26:25. Not com- 
mon — Pt. Willunga, Pt. Lincoln, Corney Point, Pt. Victoria. A 
handsome shell. 

C. nobile (Philippi). From C. meyeri this pink shell is more 
acutely conical, the mouth is more angulated, the sutural ridge is 
more prominent, also there are five well defined finely beaded 
spiral lines in addition. About one inch high, about one-eighth 
less in greatest diameter. Not common — -Pt. Willunga, Pt. 
Lincoln. 

Six other species of Cailiostoma are rare, C. incerta (Reeve) 
being a left-handed shell. 

Genus Euchelus (Philippi). Shells conical, top-shaped, with 
umbilicus or deep depression at centre of base; whorls rounded 
with beaded revolving ribs; columella or central pillar drawn 
out at base to a central tooth; outer lip of the mouth scalloped 
-or milled within. Operculum or trap-door with but a few whorls. 

Euchelus baccatus (Menke). A creamy white shell, blotched 
-or perhaps spotted with red, the beaded spirals showing well 
under a low power lens. About one-third inch in height, nearly 
half-inch greater diameter. Fairly common in South Australia 
generally. In life it adheres to the under side of stones at low 
water. As a beach shell it is found amongst shell sand. 



S.A. XAT., VOL. XI. 

August. 1930. Skett Collector/ Club. 69 



E. jenestratus (Tate). The type was from West Australia, 
but it has since been taken at Normanville. A small white shell 
with reddish-brown spots on the spirals which are not conspicu- 
ously beaded. About one-sixth of an inch high and slightly less 
in diameter. 

E. scabrius cuius (Adams & Angus). A top-shaped shell, 
with narrow, deep depression at centre of base; creamy white, 
usually spotted with red; spirals thickly beaded on the whorls, 
and with a channelled impression at the sutures. About one- 
sixth of an inch in height and about one-fourth greater in dia- 
meter. Not common- — Outer Harbour, Pt. Willunga, Norman- 
villc, Semaphore, Grange. 

E. vixumbilicatus (Tate). Somewhat like E. scabriusculus 
but broader and whorls more convex, with fourteen beaded 
girdles on the body whorl between the beaded umbilical border 
and the suture. White with pink spots. About one-fifth of an 
inch in height and diameter. Somewhat rare — West Coast. 
Hardwick Bay. 

Tallorbis ampullus (Tate). A plump conical shell with a 
small narrow depression at centre of base. Whitish with red 
spots, about eight girdles on the large whorl and trellised be- 
tween them. Barely half-inch either way. Uncommon — Corner 
Point. 

Family Trochidae occupied nine meetings of the Club. 

Family Turbmidae. 

Genus Phasianella (Lam ; ) . Shells elongated, polished, 
richly coloured; whorls convex; aperture oval, not pearly: inner 
lip callous, outer lip thin. Operculum or trap door ? shelly, with 
a suggestion of a spiral on the inner face. 

The foot of the animal appears to be divided longitudinally 
into halves, which advance alternately with an undulatory motion. 

The larger species are found only in Southern Australian 
waters. 

P. australis (Gmelin). The Pheasant-shell or Painted-Lady 
is common from Swan River to Victoria (Western Port) and 
Tasmania. No two specimens are exactly alike in colour and 
pattern. Shells in a cabinet are apt to become dull and lose their 
freshness: Mr. Edwardes, of the Shell Club, found that by first. 



S.A. NAT.; VOL. XI. 

70 SMI Collectors' Club. August. 1930. 



smearing the shell with vaseline, dipping it, enclosed in a cloth, 
in boiling water, then removing the animal, left the shell bright 
and fresh as in life; the film of vaseline tending to prevent the 
multitudinous surface cracks which disfigure so many specimens. 
The largest Pheasant shell tabled was by Mr, Kimber, from 
Levens Beach, 97 mm, or nearly 4 inches. 

P. kochi (Philippi). Small, pinkish, not very thin for its 

■size, not very elevated, with white blotches on the upper part of 

each whorl. One-sixth of an inch. South-East Coast: Not 
common. 

P. perdix (Wood). The body whorl occupies rather more 
than two-thirds of the entire height. (P. australis is about half). 
Also, there is not the same diversity of pattern as in the larger 
shell. If inches for the largest specimen. Fairly common 
Encounter Bay, and farther south. 

P. rosea (Angas). Only about three whorls, yet somewhat 
elongated; the body whorl occupies about seven-eighths of the 
•entire height, and the outer lip at its posterior extremity forms 
an obtuse angle with the descending body whorl. Pink to crim- 
son. One-sixth of an inch. South-East only, in shell sand. 

P. variegata (Lam:). Small, narrow, reticulated, and with 
lines of coloured and white spots spirally round the whorls — 
about twelve such lines on the body whorl and base. Colour 
mostly rose with white stripes. \ inch. Pt. Willunga and farther 
south. Fairly common. 

P. virgo (Angas). Pink, flamed with white at the sutures, 
which are deep. Base, white flamed with brown. Whorls about 
three, swollen in the middle. One-sixth of an inch. Pt. Mac- 
Donnell, in shell sand. Not common. 

Genus Turbo (Linne). Top-shaped shells, solid, whorls 
■convex, smooth or often grooved or beaded. Mouth round, 
large, slightly drawn out in front. Operculum shelly and solid, 
the inner face' horny and with a few spiral turns. 

T. jourdani (Kiener). Our largest univalve. Very rare. 
Mr. Kimber's specimen was 3£ inches by 3 -J inches. The speci- 
men in the Museum is larger and worth a visit. Some of the 
members of the Club arc delighted to possess even the central 
axis without the rest of the shell, not having anything better. 
Some of us have not that. Francis Island, Corney Point, Cape 
Borda, Wallaroo. 



S.A. NAT., VOL. XI. 
August, 1930 . Shell -Collectors' Club. _71 

T. grxineri (Ph'ilippi).. With transverse granular ribs, deeply 
■channelled. Seventeen such ribs on the body whorl and base. 
The shell is not umbilicated, that is, no deep depression at the 
centre of the base. Pinkish-brown, mottled with a lighter tint. 
The aperture or mouth is two-thirds of the height. Height, \\ 
inches; greatest diameter, \\ inches. Ranges from Swan River 
to Bass Straits. Not common, but occasionally found on shell 
sand, Adelaide beaches. 

7'. staminev.s (Martyn), A reef loving shell at Ft, Noar- 
lunga and farther .south; not often on beaches. Very deeply 
umbilicated; whorls four, are somewhat angulated at their 
greatest circumference, and coronated above near the suture or 
-dividing line. Colour greyish. Height, 3-J inches; diameter, a 
.third greater. 

T. undulatus (Martyn). The Warrener or periwinkle, and 
•common on all coasts of South Australia. Smooth, bluish-green, 
■with white zigzag streaks. Deeply umbilicated. Operculum 
solid, white, about five whorls, elliptical, outer surface grunulose 
(under a lens) shining, centre raised; inner surface flat. About 
two inches. 

Genus Astrea (Boltcn). A yellowish shell with diagonal ribs 
-about £ inch in height and diameter and often found on the shell 
sand patches is Astrea aurea — a pearly shell somewhat like a 
small Trochus with the whorls flattened at the edge to a kind of 
flange, about the same size, is Astrea fimbriata, also found on the 
shell sand. 

Family Liotndae. 

This was also included in the quarter's review. There are 
several genera and about thirty species, many of which are micro- 
scopic, taken from shell sand. A number are discoidal, or dis^ 
shaped, that is to say, the apex of the spire is no higher than the 
mouth, like the well-known fossil Ammonites. 

Members of the 'Club will exchange shells with foreign 
■collectors 

F.. K. GODFREY, Hon. Secretary. 





S.A. KAT.j VOL- XT. 

August; 1930. 



ALTERATION OF PROGRAMME. 

Members are notified that the trip to Mount Compass on 
October 8th will instead be to Basket. Range. The charabanc 
fare has been lixed at 5s. per passenger. Members are asked to 
invite their friends for this outing. Seats will be reserved in 
order of booking. This is the only charabanc trip for the year. 

EXCURSIONS. 

Sept. 20 — Mt. Lofty. Train at 2.14 p.m. Botany. Leader, Mr. 
E. H. Ising. Please note train time alteration. 

Sept. 27 — Waite Research Institute. 2 p.m. Take Fullarton 
tram to terminus. 

Oct. 8— Basket Range, 9 a.m. Flinders Street. Charabanc 
seats are 5/- each and must be paid for at time of 
booking. Book with Mr. Beck in Cole's Book 
Arcade. Tea and sugar will be provided, but 
members bring their own lunch and milk. 
Members are asked to collect flowers for the Show 
and bring a bag or basket to put them in. 

Oct. 18 — The Knoll, Upper Sturt. Tram at 2.14 p.m. Botany. 
Leader, Mr. J. A. Hogan. 

Nov. 1 — Botanic Gardens, entrance at 2.30 p.m. Australian 
Flora. Mr. J. F- Bailey. 

.Nov. 15 — Blackwood. Mr. E. Ashby's. Train at Z.14 p..m. 
Cultivated Native Flora. Leader, Mr. F. K. 
Godfrey. 

EVENING MEETINGS. 

On September 16 and November 18, the meetings will 
commence at 7.30 p.m. in the lower room, where the business 
items will be gone through, adjourning to the upper room in time 
to enable the lecture to begin promptly at 8 p.m. 

LECTURES. 

*Sept. 16 — "Trees of Adelaide Plantations," by Mr. J. F. Bailey. 

Oct. 21 — Exhibit Evening. Mr. E. H. Ising. Members are 
to bring something of interest no matter how 
small. 

*Nov. 18— 'The Unknown Bali/' by Sir W. J. Sowden. 

* These lectures will be held in the Lecture Room, and will be illustrated by 

lantern slides..